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Table 1 Modifications of antibiotic regimens

From: Identifying targets for antibiotic stewardship interventions through analysis of the antibiotic prescribing process in hospitals - a multicentre observational cohort study

Process measures Definition
Modification of therapy
 Escalation Change from oral to intravenous (i.v.) antibiotic treatment within the same antibacterial spectrum, change to more broad-spectrum treatment, adding an antibiotic to a combination.
 De-escalation Change from i.v. to oral antibiotic treatment within the same antibacterial spectrum or change to more narrow-spectrum treatment.
 Change same level Change to a regimen within the same antibacterial spectrum and form of administration (i.v./oral).
 Unchanged Regimens where first change of therapy was discontinuation of antibiotics, either during admission or after discharge.
Time to first modification of AB regimen Time to first escalation/de-escalation/change within same antibacterial spectrum and dosage form (change of active substance(s), i.v. to oral switch, stopping or adding an antibiotic).
Number of treatment regimens The number of treatment regimens from initiation of treatment until antibiotics prescribed at discharge
Day of oral antibiotics The first day that one or more oral antibiotics were given.