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Table 2 Results of a desk review exercise to determine the status of antibiotic residues in milk in India

From: A review of animal health and drug use practices in India, and their possible link to antimicrobial resistance

Study authors Study area Test analyses procedures (number of samples) % Positive
Kalla et al. [47] Selected coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh Delvo test (n = 300 raw milk) 7 (penicillin); 5 (tetracycline); 6 (oxytetracycline)
Kumarswamy et al. [69] Thrissur Microbial Inhibition Assay (n = 165) 8 (antibiotic residues)
Charm Assay (n = 14) 21 (tetracycine)
Charm Assay (n = 14) 28 (Beta lactam
Charm ENRO (n = 14) 21 (Enrofloxacin)
Nirala et al. [70] Bihar HPLC (n = 250) 1.2 (Enrofloxacin)
Lunden [48] Assam Charm Rosa 88 (Neomycin, Streptocmycin)
22.8 (Sulphonamide)
2.9 (Beta lactams)
2.3 (Chlorampenicol)
2 (Macrolides / Gentamycin)
Lejaniya et al. [71] Thrisssur Antibiotic test kits (n = 50) 12 (Beta lactam)
2 (Tetracyclines)
Gaurav et al. [72] Punjab Ridascreen competitive enzyme immunoassay (n = 133) 13.5 (Tetracycline)
Dinki and Balcha [67] Guwahati city n = 120 23.3 (type not specified)