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Table 1 Variation in antimicrobial consumption and resistance to cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and macrolides for six bacterial species in 30 European Countries. Values reported as medians (interquartile ranges)

From: Gonococcal resistance can be viewed productively as part of a syndemic of antimicrobial resistance: an ecological analysis of 30 European countries

  Antimicrobial consumption Antimicrobial Resistance
  Neisseria gonorrhoeae Escherichia coli Klebsiella pneumoniae Streptococcus pneumoniae Acinetobacter spp. Pseudomonas aeruginosa
1997 FD 2018 FD 2009 2018 2000 2018 2005 2018 2005 2018 2005 2018 2005 2018
N 14   29   17 27 4 29 21 29 26 28 26 28 26 29
ESCephalosporin 1.7 (0.6–4.0) 313 1.9 (0.6–2.7) 262 0.9 (0.0–6.4)a 0.0 (0.0–2.2)a 0.2 (0.1–1.9) 13.8 (9.6–19.3) 7.1 (4.1–27.7) 30.8 (12.8–53.3) NA NA NA NA NA NA
Fluoroquinolone 1.0 (0.5–1.6) 13.8 1.2 (0.8–2.3) 7.0 70.0 (49.1–79.2) 55.0 (44.4–60.0) 3.8 (2.5–6.0) 23.9 (17.7–32.1) 11.1 (4.9–34.0) 30.4 (13.2–52.7) NA NA 15.2 (8.1–22.5) 13.3 (7.5–20.5) 15.2 (8.1–22.5) 15.0 (10.4–26.0)
Macrolide 2.9 (1.8–3.4) 5.4 2.8 (1.9–3.6) 12.7 6.6 (2.6–14.5) 7.7 (3.2–12.7) NA NA NA NA 15.2 (8.1–22.5) 13.3 (7.5–20.5) NA NA NA NA
  1. a Cefixime; ESCephalosporin Extended Spectrum Cephalosporin, FD Fold Difference in antimicrobial consumption between highest and lowest consumption country-year, NA Not Available/Not Applicable