Skip to main content

Table 1 Bivariate analysis of risk factors for extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii acquisition in the open-bay intensive care unit during the study period

From: The effect of temporary closure and enhanced terminal disinfection using aerosolized hydrogen peroxide of an open-bay intensive care unit on the acquisition of extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

Characteristics Total
(N = 335 patients) (%)
Group 1
(N = 44 patients) (%)
Group 2
(N = 282 patients) (%)
P (Group 1 vs. Group 2) Group 3
(N = 9 patients) (%)
Age (years)
≤ 45 49 (14.6) 4 (9.1) 44 (15.6) 0.23 1 (11.1)
> 45 and < 75 132 (39.4) 15 (34.1) 115 (40.8) 2 (22.2)
≥ 75 154 (46.0) 25 (56.8) 123 (43.6) 6 (66.7)
Gender     0.29  
Female 165 (49.3) 25 (56.8) 136 (48.2) 4 (44.4)
Male 170 (50.7) 19 (43.2) 146 (51.8) 5 (55.6)
Cause of ICU admission
Respiratory problem 117 (34.9) 15 (34.1) 97 (34.4) 0.97 5 (55.6)
Septic shock 102 (30.4) 16 (36.4) 83 (29.4) 0.35 3 (33.3)
Post-surgical Observation 38 (11.3) 5 (11.4) 33 (11.7) 0.95 0 (0.0)
Other causes 78 (23.3) 8 (18.2) 69 (24.5) 0.36 1 (11.1)
Intra-abdominal surgery 23 (6.9) 4 (9.1) 19 (6.8) 0.53 0 (0.0)
Pressure ulcer 51 (15.2) 9 (20.5) 38 (13.5) 0.22 4 (44.4)
Wound 17 (5.1) 6 (13.6) 10 (3.5) 0.01 1 (11.1)
Urinary catheter 306 (91.3) 44 (100.0) 253 (89.7) 0.02 9 (100.0)
< 5 d 176 (52.5) 10 (22.7) 163 (57.8) < 0.0001 3 (33.3)
≥ 5 d 159 (47.5) 34 (77.3) 119 (42.2) 6 (66.7)
Mechanical ventilation 169 (50.4) 36 (81.8) 126 (44.7) < 0.0001 7 (77.8)
< 2 d 204 (60.9) 9 (20.5) 190 (67.4) 0.002 5 (55.6)
≥ 2 d 131 (39.1) 35 (79.5) 92 (32.6) 4 (44.4)
BiPAP use at hospital 83 (24.8) 11 (25.0) 70 (24.8) 0.98 2 (22.2)
BiPAP use at home 25 (7.5) 2 (4.5) 23 (8.2) 0.55 0 (0.0)
Central line 105 (31.3) 19 (43.2) 82 (29.1) 0.06 4 (44.4)
Kemal catheter 33 (9.9) 6 (13.6) 27 (9.6) 0.42 0 (0.0)
Hemodialysis in ICU 44 (13.1) 5 (11.4) 39 (13.8) 0.66 0 (0.0)
Use of vasopressors 173 (51.6) 27 (61.4) 141 (50.0) 0.16 5 (55.6)
APACHE II score
< 20 220 (65.7) 27 (61.4) 189 (67.0) 0.46 4 (44.4)
≥ 20 115 (34.3) 17 (38.6) 93 (33.3) 5 (55.6)
Between 20 and 29 86 (25.7) 15 (34.1) 68 (73.1) 0.35 3 (33.3)
≥ 30 29 (8.7) 2 (4.5) 25 (26.9) 2 (22.2)
CCI score
0 38 (11.3) 3 (6.8) 34 (12.1) 0.047 1 (11.1)
1–2 31 (9.3) 4 (9.1) 26 (9.2) 1 (11.1)
3–4 75 (22.4) 12 (27.3) 61 (21.6) 2 (22.2)
5–6 97 (29.0) 19 (43.2) 76 (27.0) 2 (22.2)
7–8 62 (18.5) 6 (13.6) 55 (19.5) 1 (11.1)
> 8 32 (9.6) 0 (0.0) 30 (10.6) 2 (22.2)
< 4 91 (27.2) 12 (27.3) 76 (27.0) 0.96 3 (33.3)
≥ 4 244 (72.8) 32 (72.7) 206 (73.0) 6 (66.7)
XDR-AB contact pressure 147 (43.9) 33 (75.0) 113 (40.1) < 0.0001 1 (11.1)
< 3 d 252 (75.2) 14 (31.8) 230 (81.6) < 0.0001 8 (88.9)
≥ 3 d 83 (24.8) 30 (68.2) 52 (18.4) 1 (11.1)
Blood Transfusion 98 (29.3) 11 (25.0) 82 (29.1) 0.58 5 (55.6)
CAR use 195 (58.2) 31 (70.5) 157 (55.7) 0.06 7 (77.8)
< 4 d 208 (62.1) 19 (43.2) 185 (65.6) 0.004 4 (44.4)
≥ 4 d 127 (37.9) 25 (56.8) 97 (34.4) 5 (55.6)
< 7 d 246 (73.4) 25 (56.8) 216 (76.6) 0.005 5 (55.6)
≥ 7 d 89 (26.6) 19 (43.2) 66 (23.4) 4 (44.4)
TZP use 119 (35.5) 23 (52.3) 93 (33.0) 0.01 3 (33.3)
< 4 d 275 (82.1) 34 (77.3) 234 (83.0) 0.36 7 (77.8)
≥ 4 d 60 (17.9) 10 (22.7) 48 (17.0) 2 (22.2)
CAR or TZP use 259 (77.3) 43 (97.7) 207 (73.4) < 0.0001 9 (100.0)
< 4 d 164 (49.0) 12 (27.3) 149 (52.8) 0.002 3 (33.3)
≥ 4 d 171 (51.0) 32 (72.7) 133 (47.2) 6 (66.7)
LOS in the ICU
< 4 days 175 (52.2) 7 (15.9) 164 (58.2) < 0.0001 4 (44.4)
≥ days 160 (47.8) 37 (84.1) 118 (41.8) 5 (55.6)
Number of patients who stayed in the ICU during each numerical week after ETDa
Week 1 54 (16.1) 6 (13.6) 44 (15.6) 0.74 4 (44.4)
Week 2 35 (10.4) 5 (11.4) 27 (9.6) 0.78 3 (33.3)
Week 3 37 (11.0) 5 (11.4) 32 (11.3) 1.00 0 (0.0)
Week 4 35 (10.4) 5 (11.4) 29 (10.3) 0.79 1 (11.1)
Week 5 38 (11.3) 6 (13.6) 31 (11.0) 0.61 1 (11.1)
Week 6 31 (9.3) 8 (18.2) 21 (7.4) 0.04 2 (22.2)
Week 7 30 (9.0) 7 (15.9) 21 (7.4) 0.08 2 (22.2)
Week 8 38 (11.3) 6 (13.6) 31 (11.0) 0.61 1 (11.1)
Week 9 36 (10.7) 8 (18.2) 26 (9.2) 0.11 2 (22.1)
Week 10 19 (5.7) 5 (11.4) 14 (5.0) 0.15 0 (0.0)
Week 11 25 (7.5) 7 (15.9) 17 (6.0) 0.03 1 (11.1)
Week 12 26 (7.8) 8 (18.2) 17 (6.0) 0.01 1 (11.1)
Week 13 22 (6.6) 7 (15.9) 14 (5.0) 0.01 1 (11.1)
Week 14 20 (6.0) 10 (22.7) 10 (3.5) < 0.0001 0 (0.0)
Week 15 17 (5.1) 8 (18.2) 9 (3.2) 0.001 0 (0.0)
Week 16 18 (5.4) 6 (13.6) 12 (4.3) 0.02 0 (0.0)
  1. KEY = APACHE Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation, BiPAP Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure, CAR Carbapenems, CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index, d days, ETD Enhanced Terminal Disinfection, ICU Intensive Care Unit, LOS Length of Stay, TZP Piperacillin/Tazobactam, XDR-AB Extensively-drug resistant Acinetobacter bumannii
  2. N.B
  3. In this study, we divided ICU patients to three groups based on their acquisition of XDR A. baumannii (XDR-AB):
  4. -Group 1 or test group included patients who acquired XDR-AB during their stay at least 48 h after admission to the ICU or until 1 week after discharge from the ICU.
  5. -Group 2 or control group included patients admitted to ICU during the study period and who did not show any evidence of XDR-AB acquisition at anytime.
  6. -Group 3 included patients who:
  7. 1. Had positive XDR-AB cultures recovered from any body site within the first 48 h of admission to the ICU,
  8. 2. Had evidence of colonization and /or infection with XDR-AB from a previous admission to our facility during 1 year prior to the study period,
  9. 3. Were admitted to our ICU or any other ICU in the past 3 months prior to the study period,
  10. 4. Were transferred from or admitted to another acute-care or long-term healthcare facility within the past 3 months prior to the study period.
  11. aPatients who resided in the ICU during numerical weeks 1 to 16 were only included since the number of patient days per week was > 50 days. Patients were counted more than once depending on their duration of stay with respect to the numerical weeks after ETD