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Table 1 Change in hand hygiene compliance per indication by study group and by study period

From: A multimodal intervention to improve hand hygiene compliance in peripheral wards of a tertiary care university centre: a cluster randomised controlled trial

WHO-moment Group Period Number of HH-opportunities Number of HH-actions Compliance (%) Absolute change Odds ratioa
(CI95), p-value
All Intervention Baseline 2494 1482 59.42   reference
Intervention 8215 5033 61.27 1.85 1.08 (0.88, 1.33), 0.46
Control Baseline 2484 1457 58.66   reference
Intervention 8231 4948 60.11 1.45 1.06 (0.84, 1.35), 0.62
1 – before touching a patient Intervention Baseline 698 393 56.3   reference
Intervention 2346 1408 60.02 3.72 1.16 (0.86, 1.58), 0.33
Control Baseline 658 352 53.5   reference
Intervention 2130 1201 56.38 2.88 1.12 (0.80, 1.58), 0.50
2 – before clean or aseptic procedure Intervention Baseline 380 168 44.21   reference
Intervention 1452 764 52.62 8.41 1.40 (1.04, 1.89), 0.03
Control Baseline 426 193 45.31   reference
Intervention 1738 905 52.07 6.76 1.31 (0.93, 1.84), 0.12
3 – after body fluid exposure risk Intervention Baseline 171 114 66.67   reference
Intervention 527 333 63.19 −3.48 0.86 (0.60, 1.23), 0.40
Control Baseline 241 145 60.17   reference
Intervention 705 482 68.37 8.20 1.43 (0.94, 2.18), 0.09
4 – after touching a patient Intervention Baseline 791 563 71.18   reference
Intervention 2496 1774 71.07 −0.11 1.00 (0.77, 1.29), 0.97
Control Baseline 668 499 74.7   reference
Intervention 2414 1685 69.8 −4.90 0.78 (0.56, 1.09), 0.15
5 – after touching patient surroundings Intervention Baseline 454 244 53.74   reference
Intervention 1394 754 54.09 0.35 1.01 (0.81, 1.27), 0.90
Control Baseline 491 268 54.58   reference
Intervention 1244 675 54.26 −0.32 0.99 (0.76, 1.28), 0.92
  1. Abbreviations: HH hand hygiene, CI95 95% confidence interval; a result of logistic regression with ward as a cluster effect