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Table 3 Risk factors for insufficient reduction of microbial skin counts after two paints of preoperative skin antisepsis

From: Are three antiseptic paints needed for safe preparation of the surgical field? A prospective cohort study with 239 patients

Variable Level Crudea OR CrudeaP-value
Ageb Per 1-year increase 1.0 (1.0─1.1) 0.3
Sex Female 1 0.2
Male 0.3 (0.04─1.8)
BMIb Per 1-kg/m2 increase 1.0 (0.8─1.2) 0.2
Diabetes mellitusc No 1 0.3
Yes 2.6 (0.3─16.4)
Antimicrobial treatment prior to surgeryd No 1 0.2
Yes 3.8 (0.2─28.0)
Adequate antimicrobial prophylaxise No 1 Not estimable
Type of surgery Cardiac 1 0.9
Abdominal 0.8 (0.1─5.4)
Type of disinfectant Chlorhexidine 1 Not estimable
Povidone iodine
Overall exposure time of antiseptic productf Per 0.5-min increase 1.1 (0.9─1.3) 0.6
Microbial skin counts prior to skin antisepsis Per 100-CFU increase 1.0 (1.0─1.0) 0.9
  1. We performed all univariable analyses on the complete case population (n = 230 patients)
  2. BMI body mass index, CFU colony forming unit, OR odds ratio
  3. aCalculated by use of univariable logistic regression models with fixed effects
  4. bAt day of surgery
  5. cPrevious diagnosis of diabetes mellitus type 2 according to medical records
  6. dAny antimicrobial treatment within the last 2 weeks prior to surgery and excluding peri-interventional antimicrobial prophylaxis
  7. eAntimicrobial prophylaxis administered within 120 min prior to incision
  8. fTime period from start of skin antisepsis until the applied antiseptic has dried out after paint 2