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Table 1 Toxic effects of methanol, isopropyl alcohol and ethyl alcohol

From: Potential methanol toxicity and the importance of using a standardised alcohol-based hand rub formulation in the era of COVID-19

Alcohol Dermal absorption from use of ABHRs Toxic metabolite Toxic effects
Methanol Can occur with toxic effects [15]. Formic acid Nausea
Abdominal pain
Central nervous system (CNS) depression
Visual disturbance
Increased osmolar gap with metabolic acidosis [19].
Isopropyl alcohol Can occur but not to toxic levels [20,21,22]. Acetone Inebriation
Gastrointestinal mucosal irritation (abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhoea, haematemesis)
Profound CNS depression (headache, dizziness, stupor/coma)
Increased osmolar gap but no metabolic acidosis [19].
Ethanol Can occur but not to toxic levels [21,22,23,24]. Acetaldehyde Inebriation
Gastrointestinal mucosal irritation (vomiting, haematemesis, diarrhoea)
CNS depression [25].