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Table 3 Visual assessment of the World Health Organization’s hand hygiene procedure on first year (baseline before training) and on second year (after training)

From: Using an ultraviolet cabinet improves compliance with the World Health Organization’s hand hygiene recommendations by undergraduate medical students: a randomized controlled trial

  Variable Control group n = 102 Intervention group (Supervised personal feedback) n = 140 P-value
YEAR 1 BASELINE BEFORE TRAINING Fully respected procedure (%) 58.9 66.9 0.22
Palm to palm application (%) 97.8 98.6 0.66
Right palm over left dorsum with interlaced fingers application + Palm to palm with fingers interlaced application (%) 92.2 95.0 0.40
Backs of fingers to opposing palms with fingers interlocked (%) 85.6 89.9 0.32
Rotational rubbing of left thumb clasped in right palm and vice versa (%) 86.7 91.4 0.26
Rotational rubbing, backwards and forwards with clasped fingers of right hand in left palm and vice versa (%) 85.6 87.1 0.75
Duration ≥20 s (%) 86.7 92.1 0.18
YEAR 2 AFTER TRAINING Fully respected procedure (%) 50.5 61.3 0.09
Palm to palm application (%) 98.0 97.1 0.66
Right palm over left dorsum with interlaced fingers application + Palm to palm with fingers interlaced application (%) 95.0 90.5 0.19
Backs of fingers to opposing palms with fingers interlocked (%) 71.3 80.3 0.11
Rotational rubbing of left thumb clasped in right palm and vice versa (%) 79.2 82.5 0.52
Rotational rubbing, backwards and forwards with clasped fingers of right hand in left palm and vice versa (%) 90.1 91.2 0.76
Duration ≥20 s (%) 92.1 96.3 0.16
  1. p-value: chi-2 Pearson test