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Table 4 Respect of the WHO’s hand hygiene opportunities on second year (“the five moments for HH in health care”)

From: Using an ultraviolet cabinet improves compliance with the World Health Organization’s hand hygiene recommendations by undergraduate medical students: a randomized controlled trial

Variable Control group n = 102 Intervention group (Supervised personal feedback) n = 140 p-value
Full compliance (all the HH opportunities performed) (%) 42.4 58.1 0.018
- Entry/before preparing the material (respect of moment 2) (%) 100 100
- Before touching the patient (respect of moment 1) (%) 77.8 85.3 0.14
- Before glove for puncture (respect of moment 2) (%) 80.9 79.8 0.84
- After gloves for puncture (respect of moment 3) 74.7 80.9 0.26
- After gloves for material evacuation (respect of moment 3) (%) 76.8 81.6 0.36
- After touching the patient before exit (respect of moment 4) (%) 75.8 84.6 0.09
  1. p-value: chi-2 Pearson test
  2. The moments refer to the WHO’s indications for hand hygiene (“the five moments for HH in health care”)
  3. Compliance at the entry is 100% in both groups because assessment of application of the AHR under UV light was done at this step
  4. Each student was evaluated during the scenario-based learning for an arterial puncture (first attempt). On a standardized document, the tutor visually assessed and recorded their respect of the WHO’s hand hygiene opportunities during the simulation session
  5. Full observance corresponded that the student performed all (6) the HH opportunities
  6. Abbreviations: HH hand hygiene, UV Ultraviolet, AHR alcohol-based handrub