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Table 1 Clinical Signs and Symptoms of patients diagnosed with URTI and recommendations on need for antibiotics. The actual counts (percentage) and median (IQR) are reflected for categorical and continuous variables respectively

From: Risk prediction models to guide antibiotic prescribing: a study on adult patients with uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infections in an emergency department

Variables Review of antibiotics recommended (RABX) (n = 254) Antibiotics not recommended (NABX) (n = 461) p
Demographics
Age (years) 37 (29–54) 36 (28–50) 0.170
Gender    0.009
 Male 172 (67.7) 266 (57.7)  
Residency    0.815
 Residents 185 (72.8) 332 (72.0)  
Race    0.110
 Chinese 111 (43.7) 197 (42.7)  
 Malay 40 (15.7) 98 (21.3)
 Indian 56 (22.0) 74 (16.0)
 Others 47 (18.6) 92 (20.0)
Visit Month    0.211
 January 11 (4.3) 35 (7.6)  
 February 15 (5.9) 24 (5.2)
 March 19 (7.5) 31 (6.7)
 April 24 (9.4) 27 (5.9)
 May 20 (7.9) 38 (8.2)
 June 14 (5.5) 42 (9.1)
 July 29 (11.4) 69 (15.0)
 August 24 (9.4) 40 (8.7)
 September 34 (13.4) 45 (9.8)
 October 31 (12.2) 51 (11.1)
 November 14 (5.5) 34 (7.4)
 December 19 (7.5) 25 (5.4)
Epidemiologic Data
 Smoker 53 (20.9) 114 (24.7) 0.123
 Influenza Vaccination in the past 1 year 94 (37.0) 169 (36.7) 0.675
 Travelled Overseas 74 (29.1) 116 (25.2) 0.250
 Prior Consultation in 14 days 146 (57.5) 228 (49.5) 0.040
 Prescribed antibiotics during prior consultation 64 (25.2) 125 (27.1) 0.578
Comorbidities
 Asthma 36 (14.2) 91 (19.7) 0.062
 COPD 40 (15.7) 77 (16.7) 0.741
 Taking steroids 12 (4.7) 44 (9.5) 0.032
 Diabetes mellitus 25 (9.8) 39 (8.5) 0.535
 Liver disease 3 (1.2) 9 (2.0) 0.554
 Cancer 11 (4.3) 8 (1.7) 0.039
 Myocardial Infarction 8 (3.1) 12 (2.6) 0.671
 Chronic Heart Failure 2 (0.8) 2 (0.4) 0.618
 Renal disease 4 (1.6) 5 (1.1) 0.728
 Charlson’s Comorbidity Index >0 82 (32.3) 158 (34.3) 0.590
Symptoms
 Onset of symptoms (days) 4 (3–7) 4 (3–7) 0.438
 Fever 188 (74.0) 234 (50.8) < 0.001
 Headache 27 (10.6) 38 (8.2) 0.288
 Joint pain 8 (3.1) 9 (2.0) 0.315
 Abdomen pain 14 (5.5) 16 (3.5) 0.193
 Loss of appetite 23 (9.1) 35 (7.6) 0.493
 Body ache 48 (18.9) 52 (11.3) 0.005
 Diarrhea 10 (3.9) 18 (3.9) 0.983
 Runny nose 116 (45.7) 244 (52.9) 0.063
 Nausea 12 (4.7) 26 (5.6) 0.602
 Red eye 3 (1.2) 4 (0.9) 0.704
 Rash 7 (2.8) 11 (2.4) 0.763
 Shortness of breath 38 (15.0) 107 (23.2) 0.009
 Sore throat 130 (51.2) 196 (42.5) 0.026
 Vomiting 21 (8.3) 19 (4.1) 0.021
 Giddiness 8 (3.1) 33 (7.2) 0.027
 Tiredness 13 (5.1) 17 (3.7) 0.361
Signs
 Conjunctival congestion 3 (1.2) 6 (1.3) 1.000
 Dehydration 15 (5.9) 16 (3.5) 0.126
 Injected pharynx 80 (31.5) 111 (24.1) 0.032
 Sinus congestion 3 (1.2) 2 (0.4) 0.353
 Enlarged tonsil 6 (2.4) 9 (2.0) 0.714
 Abnormal findings on abdominal examination 8 (3.1) 7 (1.5) 0.145
 Abnormal findings on lungs examination 19 (7.5) 50 (10.8) 0.145
Vital Signs
 Highest body temp (°C) 37.4 (36.9–38.4) 37.0 (36.6–37.3) < 0.001
 Highest pulse rate (beats per minute) 96 (84–101) 89 (80–98) < 0.001
 Highest respiratory rate (breaths per minute) 18 (17–18) 18 (17–18) 0.322
 Lowest Sa02 level (%) 98 (96–99) 98 (97–99) 0.001
 Lowest systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 117 (105–131) 122 (111–133) < 0.001
 Lowest diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 65 (58–75) 68 (62–77) 0.010