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Table 4 Impact of the intervention on the reduction in cost (in euro) of antibiotics across follow-up (median 19 months)a

From: Impact of a multifaceted intervention to improve antibiotic prescribing: a pragmatic cluster-randomised controlled trial

  % change in costa Changes in cost (in euro) across follow-up, attributable to the intervention b
% 95%CI p-value 95%CI
Reduction in absolute direct costs attributable to the intervention
 Costs for the Spanish NHS in Galicia −2.88 −3.97 to − 1.8 < 0.0001 − 378,061 − 518,186 to − 237,936
 Total costs −4.33 −5.38 to − 3.29 < 0.0001 − 697,381 − 861,794 to − 533,216
Reduction in direct costs per physician, attributable to the intervention
 Cost for the Spanish NHS in Galicia −2.88 − 3.97 to −1.8 < 0.0001 −311 − 426 to − 196
 Total costs −4.33 − 5.38 to − 3.29 < 0.0001 − 573 − 708 to − 438
Reduction in direct costs per 1000 inhabitants, attributable to the intervention
 Cost for the Spanish NHS in Galicia (1000 inhabitants) −2.43 −3.55 to − 1.33 < 0.0001 − 205.8 − 298.5 to − 113.1
 Total costs (1000 inhabitants) − 4.46 − 5.54 to − 3.4 < 0.0001 − 464.7 − 573 to − 356.4
  1. a Calculated from a mixed-effects model. The estimated value for intervention measures is an interaction between the variable “group” (intervention vs. control) and the variable “period” (post-intervention vs. baseline), adjusted for secular trend of the indicator
  2. b Calculated by taking the total cost of antibiotics for the control group at baseline as reference