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Table 2 Summary of findings for mortality outcomes [35]

From: Evaluation of the health and healthcare system burden due to antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli infections in humans: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Burden of disease measure Type of antimicrobial resistance Number of participants (studiesa) Relative effect sOR (95% CI) Absolute effect Risk difference (95% CI) Certainty of the evidence (GRADE)b Commentc
30-day mortality Third-generation cephalosporin 31,934
(23 studies)
2.02 (1.66–2.46) 112 more deaths per 1000 (from 76 to 151 more) Evidence to support upgrading due to strong association and no evidence to support downgrading
Quinolone 27,703 (8 studies) 1.49 (1.23–1.82) 58 more deaths per 1000 (from 28 to 93 more) No evidence to support downgrading or upgrading
MDR 6506 (4 studies) 1.63 (1.54–1.71) 96 more deaths per 1000 (from 83 to 106 more) No evidence to support downgrading or upgrading
All-cause mortality Third-generation cephalosporin 40,623 (51 studies) 2.27 (1.92–2.70) 130 more deaths per 1000 (from 98 to 166 more) Evidence to support upgrading due to strong association and no evidence to support downgrading
Quinolone 31,324 (16 studies) 1.72 (1.40–2.12) 82 more deaths per 1000 (from 48 to 121 more)d No evidence to support downgrading or upgrading
MDR 6814 (5 studies) 1.63 (1.55–1.70) 92 more deaths per 1000 (from 81 to 100 more) No evidence to support downgrading or upgrading
Bacterium-attributable mortality Third-generation cephalosporin 327 (3 studies) 1.76 (0.84–3.70) 78 more deaths per 1000 (from 18 fewer to 225 more) Downgraded due to serious inconsistency and imprecision. No evidence to support upgrading.
Quinolone Not reported
MDR Not reported
  1. sOR, summary odds ratio
  2. aAll studies were observational
  3. bGRADE assessment began at low instead of high, since studies were observational
  4. cDetails of GRADE assessment available in Additional file 23
  5. dRaw data not available from one study and therefore did not contribute to calculation of baseline risk