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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies in this systematic review and meta-analysis

From: Non-prescription dispensing of antibiotic agents among community drug retail outlets in Sub-Saharan African countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Articles Study locations Data collection method Case scenarios that resulted in antibiotics supply Number of drug retail outlets visited Number of visits/encounters/transactions Encounters in which antibiotics were sold without prescriptions (%) Main classes of antibiotics dispensed
Simulated client, acute childhood diarrhoea
Abegaz et al. [28] Ethiopia Simulated client Acute childhood diarrhoea 113 113 51 Sulphonamide, Nitro-imidazole
Berih et al. [27] Sudan Simulated client Acute childhood diarrhoea 63 63 67 Sulphonamide, Nitro-imidazole
Mengistu et al. [37] Ethiopia Simulated client Acute childhood diarrhoea 105 105 87 Sulphonamide
Simulated client, acute childhood diarrhoea plus adult upper respiratory infections (URTIs)
Ayele et al. [29] Ethiopia Simulated client Acute childhood diarrhoea and URTIs in adult 22 44 64 Sulphonamide, Nitro-imidazole, Penicillin, Macrolide Fluoroquinolone,
Erku DA et al. [33] Ethiopia Simulated client Acute childhood diarrhoea and URTIs in adult 50 100 86 Sulphonamide, Nitro-imidazole, Penicillin, Macrolide, Fluoroquinolone Cephalosporin
Simulated client, acute childhood diarrhoea plus other conditions in all ages
Nyazema et al. [39] Zimbabwe Simulated client Acute childhood diarrhoea, vaginal discharge and itching, urethral discharge 87 184 8 Penicillin, Sulphonamide, Tetracycline, Fluoroquinolone
Koji et al. [36] Ethiopia Simulated client Common cold, acute childhood diarrhoea, childhood pneumonia, meningitis, critically sick, then each case was followed by different antibiotics request 262 262 63 Penicillin, Macrolide, Sulphonamide, Nitro-imidazole, Cephalosporin, Aminoglycoside,
Minzi et al. [38] Tanzania Simulated client Cough, headache and childhood diarrhoea, left hip injury, fever and childhood diarrhoea, vomiting and diarrhoea, persistent cough, yellowish urethral discharge with a bad smell, then each case was followed by different antibiotics request 145 145 69 Penicillin, Fluoroquinolone,
Simulated client, adult acute diarrhoea plus other conditions
Bahta et al. [20] Eritrea Simulated Client Acute watery diarrhoea and urinary tract infection(UTI) 84 153 88 Fluoroquinolone Sulphonamide, Penicillin, Tetracycline, Nitro-imidazole
Horumpende et al. [35] Tanzania Simulated client Unspecified fever, cough, acute diarrhoea, pain during urination 39 39 92 Penicillin, Macrolide, Cephalosporin, Sulphonamide, Nitro-imidazole,, Fluoroquinolone
Damisie et al. [32] Ethiopia Simulated client Acute diarrhoea, sore throat, UTI 18 54 87 Fluoroquinolone Sulphonamide, Penicillins Nitro-imidazole,, Macrolide
Simulated client, URTIs plus antibiotics product request in all ages
Erku et al. [34] Ethiopia Simulated client URTIs and amox-clav request 58 116 82 Penicillin Macrolides, Cephalosporin, Fluoroquinolone
Wafula et al. [41] Kenya Simulated client Acute respiratory infection followed by amoxicillin request 200 200 87 Penicillin
Chikowe et al. [31] Malawi Simulated client Direct product request(amoxicillin) (if asked, clarified as flu or cold) 45 45 93 Penicillin
Chalker et al. [30] Tanzania Simulated client Cough and breathing difficulty and fast breathing with harsh noise; cough and runny nose, cough and runny nose then “co-trimoxazole (septrin) request 306 306 58 Sulphonamide
Simulated client, adult sexually transmitted infections
Viberg et al. [40] Tanzania Simulated client Vaginal discharge and itching, urethral discharge 94 251 53 Tetracycline, Penicillin, Sulphonamide, Macrolides, Fluoroquinolone, Nitro-imidazole,
Questionnaire based surveys, observation while pharmacy staffs are dispensing
Ahiabu et al. [47] Ghana Observation at the pharmacies N/A 6 307 91 Penicillin, Nitro-imidazole, fluoroquinolone, Sulphonamide, Tetracycline, Cephalosporin, Macrolide
Abula [42] Ethiopia Observation at the pharmacies N/A 12 58 31 Penicillin, Sulphonamide
Questionnaire based surveys, onsite customers interview about their antibiotic purchase
Elong Ekambi et al. [48] Cameron Interviewing clients at Pharmacies N/A 7 402 47 N/A
Gebrekirstos et al. [43] Ethiopia Interview of clients at the pharmacies N/A 14 780 38 NA
Questionnaire based surveys, dispensers asked about their antibiotic transaction (supplied for URTIs plus other conditions)
Mbonye et al. [46] Uganda Interviewing the pharmacy staff on duty about recent sale Childhood illness (URTIs, diarrhoea) 170 170 94 Penicillin, Sulphonamide, tetracycline, aminoglycoside
Kalungia et al. [45] Zambia A structured Interviewer administered questionnaire using simulated case scenario Childhood respiratory tract infection and UTI 73 146 71 Penicillins, Sulphonamide, Nitro-imidazole
Questionnaire based surveys, customers’ requested about their antibiotic purchase when they left the CDROs
Mboya et al. [44] Tanzania Interviewing clients at exit of the pharmacies URTIs, UTI, diarrhoea/diarrhoea and vomiting, wound/abscess, urinary tract infection, abdominal pain, tonsillitis, asthma, fever, gastric ulcer,post-surgery, allergy, pneumonia, weeping eye, typhoid 12 152 76 Penicillin, Nitro-imidazole, Fluoroquinolone, Macrolide, Cephalosporin, Sulphonamide
  1. NA, not available