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Table 3 Pooled estimates of the proportion of antibiotics dispensed without prescription based on disease/symptom category

From: Non-prescription dispensing of antibiotic agents among community drug retail outlets in Sub-Saharan African countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Types of symptom Pooled estimate %(95% CI) Heterogeneity Number of studies
Acute diarrhoea 60 (33–86) I2 = 98.0%,
P < 0.001
7 [27,28,29, 32, 33, 37, 39]
Upper respiratory tract infections with or without a direct antibiotics request 84 (74–94) I2 = 92.1%,
P < 0.001
6 [29,30,31, 33, 34, 41]
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) 25 (21–28) I2 = 0.0% 2 [39, 40]
Acute diarrhoea and Urinary tract infection 88 (81–92) NA 1 [20]
Urinary tract infection (UTI) 94 (74–99) NA 1 [32]
Sore throat 78 (55–91) NA 1 [32]
Case not reported or reported but the magnitude for each symptom not identified 67 (52–83) I2 = 98.9%, P < 0.001 10 [35, 36, 38, 42,43,44,45,46,47,48]
  1. NA, not applicable