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Table 3 Terminal Cleaning and Disinfection Score of the Fluorescent marker, ATP, and ACC Methods by Ward Types

From: Implementation of human factors engineering approach to improve environmental cleaning and disinfection in a medical center

MethodMedical wards (a) n = 30Surgical wards (b) n = 27ICUs (c) n = 27PPost-hoc (Bonferroni)a
Mean ± SD
Fluorescent marker
 Phase 139.0 ± 10.723.0 ± 13.356.5 ± 10.5< .001a > b*, c > a**, c > b***
 Phase 274.7 ± 16.868.9 ± 21.680.4 ± 13.6.339
 Phase 387.3 ± 8.980.4 ± 12.988.1 ± 6.7.196
ATP
 Phase 168.0 ± 7.257.0 ± 12.764.8 ± 17.6.195
 Phase 289.3 ± 6.487.4 ± 11.977.0 ± 11.2.031a > c*
 Phase 388.0 ± 5.093.0 ± 6.378.5 ± 11.0.002b > c*
ACC
 Phase 190.3 ± 6.688.9 ± 6.196.1 ± 3.9.027c > b*
 Phase 293.7 ± 4.698.1 ± 2.698.0 ± 2.6.015b > a*, c > a*
 Phase 395.3 ± 3.696.3 ± 4.595.2 ± 7.1.885
  1. NOTE. ATP ATP bioluminescence assay, ACC aerobic colony count, ICUs intensive care units, SD standard deviation
  2. a*P < .05, **P < .01, ***P < .001