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Table 1 Trends of distribution and rank order of pathogens causing healthcare-associated infections in four MNGHA hospitals in Saudi Arabia (2007–2016)

From: Ten-year resistance trends in pathogens causing healthcare-associated infections; reflection of infection control interventions at a multi-hospital healthcare system in Saudi Arabia, 2007–2016

 2007–2008
N = 173
2009–2010
N = 427
2011–2012
N = 324
2013–2014
N = 360
2015–2016
N = 260
Total
N = 1544
P-value*
N (%)RN (%)RN (%)RN (%)RN (%)RN (%)R
Gram positives67 (33.5%) 166 (33.8%) 91 (25.5%) 148 (35.7%) 81 (28.0%) 553 (31.6%) 0.211
Staphylococcus aureus32 (16.0%)253 (10.8%)246 (12.9%)364 (15.5%)348 (16.6%)2243 (13.9%)30.151
Enterococcus spp.17 (8.5%)452 (10.6%)525 (7.0%)837 (8.9%)520 (6.9%)6151 (8.6%)60.195
Coagulase negative staphylococci7 (3.5%)1048 (9.8%)616 (4.5%)1037 (8.9%)56 (2.1%)12114 (6.5%)70.114
 Other gram positives11 (5.5%)813 (2.6%)124 (1.1%)1410 (2.4%)117 (2.4%)1145 (2.6%)110.097
Gram negatives125 (62.5%) 297 (60.5%) 232 (65.0%) 253 (61.1%) 196 (67.8%) 1103 (63.0%) 0.208
Acinetobacter spp.14 (7.0%)736 (7.3%)719 (5.3%)915 (3.6%)812 (4.2%)896 (5.5%)80.009
Pseudomonas spp.34 (17.0%)170 (14.3%)152 (14.6%)265 (15.7%)248 (16.6%)2269 (15.4%)10.814
Klebsiella spp.25 (12.5%)353 (10.8%)263 (17.6%)168 (16.4%)149 (17.0%)1258 (14.7%)20.016
Enterobacter spp.15 (7.5%)653 (10.8%)232 (9.0%)632 (7.7%)728 (9.7%)4160 (9.1%)40.695
Escherichia coli16 (8.0%)535 (7.1%)840 (11.2%)441 (9.9%)427 (9.3%)5159 (9.1%)50.265
Serratia spp.3 (1.5%)1313 (2.6%)126 (1.7%)1213 (3.1%)95 (1.7%)1340 (2.3%)130.901
Stenotrophomonas maltophia3 (1.5%)1317 (3.5%)105 (1.4%)139 (2.2%)129 (3.1%)1043 (2.5%)120.905
Proteus spp.5 (2.5%)124 (0.8%)145 (1.4%)133 (0.7%)144 (1.4%)1421 (1.2%)140.496
 Other gram negatives10 (5.0%)916 (3.3%)1110 (2.8%)117 (1.7%)1314 (4.8%)757 (3.3%)100.605
Fungi8 (4.0%) 28 (5.7%) 34 (9.5%)513 (3.1%) 12 (4.2%) 95 (5.4%) 0.259
Candida Spp.7 (3.5%)1027 (5.5%)932 (9.0%)613 (3.1%)910 (3.5%)989 (5.1%)90.225
 Non-Candidal yeast1 (0.5%)151 (0.2%)152 (0.6%)15  2 (0.7%)156 (0.3%)150.876
  1. Abbreviations: N(%) Number of pathogens and percentage, R Rank
  2. * Mantel Haenszel Chi Square for linear trend