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Table 2 Trends of antimicrobial resistance in selected pathogens causing healthcare-associated infections in four MNGHA hospitals in Saudi Arabia (2007–2016)

From: Ten-year resistance trends in pathogens causing healthcare-associated infections; reflection of infection control interventions at a multi-hospital healthcare system in Saudi Arabia, 2007–2016

 2007–2008
N = 159
2009–2010
N = 382
2011–2012
N = 288
2013–2014
N = 344
2015–2016
N = 246
Total
N = 1419
P-value*
NT (%)R (%)NT (%)R (%)NT (%)R (%)NT (%)R (%)NT (%)R (%)NT (%)R (%)
Gram positives
 MRSA3281%30.8%5389%14.9%4696%29.5%6497%32.3%4898%27.7%24393.0%27.0%0.384
 VRE1794%6.3%5287%11.1%2576%52.6%3786%21.9%2080%18.8%15184.8%20.3%0.141
 Overall resistance4986%21.4%10488%13.2%7090%36.5%9794%29.7%6793%25.8%38790.2%24.9%0.071
Gram negatives
 CephR Klebsiella25100%24.0%5385%42.2%6370%31.8%6890%27.9%49100%32.7%25886.8%32.1%0.779
 CRE Klebsiella25100%0.0%5391%8.3%6370%6.8%6869%8.5%4980%15.4%25878.7%8.4%0.066
 CRE Enterobacter1593%0.0%5391%2.1%3253%0.0%3256%0.0%2861%0.0%16071.3%0.9%0.851
 CRE E.Coli16100%0.0%3597%0.0%4078%0.0%4176%3.2%2789%12.5%15985.5%2.9%0.007
 Overall Escherichia coli55100%0.0%13893%3.9%12868%3.4%13968%5.3%10377%11.4%56378.9%5.0%0.004
 MDR Acinetobacter14100%71.4%3694%58.8%1995%77.8%15100%60.0%1292%54.5%9695.8%64.1%0.665
 MDR Pseudomonas*34100%11.8%7097%16.2%5298%11.8%6598%10.9%4898%8.5%26998.1%12.1%0.353
 MDR Klebsiella25100%8.0%5385%35.6%6378%22.4%6885%17.2%4994%23.9%25886.4%22.4%0.967
 MDR Enterobacter1587%0.0%5353%3.6%3238%16.7%3241%0.0%2854%13.3%16050.6%6.2%0.248
 MDR Escherichia coli1694%26.7%3574%34.6%4080%18.8%4190%18.9%2796%19.2%15985.5%22.8%0.231
 MDR Serratia3100%33.3%1315%0.0%667%25.0%1338%0.0%540%0.0%4040.0%12.5%0.275
 MDR Stenotrophomonas3100%100.0%1724%75.0%50% 911%0.0%922%50.0%4323.3%70.0%0.242
 Overall resistance102100%26.5%25489%29.2%19985%27.1%22289%19.7%16787%23.3%94489.2%25.2%0.085
  1. Abbreviations: N Number of pathogens causing infection, T (%) Number of pathogens tested, R (%) Number of pathogens resistant, MRSA Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, VRE Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, CephR Klebsiella Cephalosporin resistant Klebsiella, CRE Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae, MDR Multidrug resistant gram negative pathogens that tested non-susceptible (resistant or intermediate) to at least one agent in at least 3 out of 5 antimicrobial classes (see Methods). Overall resistance; an pathogen with one or more of the above types of resistance. * Mantel Haenszel Chi Square for linear trend