Skip to main content

Table 3 Trends of resistance to specific antimicrobial classes in gram negative pathogens causing healthcare-associated infections in four MNGHA hospitals in Saudi Arabia (2007–2016)

From: Ten-year resistance trends in pathogens causing healthcare-associated infections; reflection of infection control interventions at a multi-hospital healthcare system in Saudi Arabia, 2007–2016

 2007–2008
N = 113
2009–2010
N = 268
2011–2012
N = 212
2013–2014
N = 232
2015–2016
N = 180
Total
N = 1005
Change*
AbsoluteRelative
Acinetobacter
 Aminoglycosides10 (71.4%)16 (45.7%)8 (44.4%)7 (46.7%)6 (50.0%)47 (50.0%)−21.4%−30.0%
 B-lactam10 (76.9%)14 (58.3%)10 (90.9%)6 (54.5%)6 (75.0%)46 (68.7%)−1.9%−2.5%
 Carbapenems10 (71.4%)17 (63.0%)13 (81.3%)10 (66.7%)6 (60.0%)56 (68.3%)−11.4%− 16.0%
 Cephalosporins11 (84.6%)22 (66.7%)14 (82.4%)13 (100.0%)7 (70.0%)67 (77.9%)−14.6%−17.3%
 Fluoroquinolones10 (71.4%)20 (58.8%)14 (77.8%)10 (66.7%)7 (63.6%)61 (66.3%)−7.8%−10.9%
 MDR310 (71.4%)20 (58.8%)14 (77.8%)9 (60.0%)6 (54.5%)59 (64.1%)−16.9%−23.6%
 MDR410 (71.4%)18 (52.9%)11 (61.1%)7 (46.7%)6 (54.5%)52 (56.5%)−16.9%−23.6%
 MDR58 (57.1%)7 (20.6%)5 (27.8%)4 (26.7%)6 (54.5%)30 (32.6%)−2.6%−4.5%
Pseudomonas
 Aminoglycosides6 (18.2%)10 (14.9%)6 (11.8%)9 (13.8%)3 (6.3%)34 (12.9%)−11.9%−65.6%
 B-lactam9 (30.0%)15 (25.0%)2 (5.4%)19 (30.6%)8 (18.2%)53 (22.7%)−11.8%−39.4%
 Carbapenems5 (15.2%)11 (42.3%)8 (40.0%)9 (50.0%)9 (52.9%)42 (36.8%)37.8%249.4%
 Cephalosporins*12 (35.3%)24 (36.4%)6 (12.8%)9 (15.0%)4 (9.3%)55 (22.0%)−26.0%−73.6%
 Fluoroquinolones2 (5.9%)11 (16.4%)7 (13.7%)9 (14.8%)5 (10.9%)34 (13.1%)5.0%84.8%
 MDR34 (11.8%)11 (16.2%)6 (11.8%)7 (10.9%)4 (8.5%)32 (12.1%)−3.3%−27.7%
 MDR42 (5.9%)8 (11.8%)4 (7.8%)6 (9.4%)2 (4.3%)22 (8.3%)−1.6%−27.7%
 MDR51 (2.9%)4 (5.9%)1 (2.0%)5 (7.8%)2 (4.3%)13 (4.9%)1.3%44.7%
Klebsiella
 Aminoglycosides7 (28.0%)24 (46.2%)20 (32.8%)16 (24.6%)15 (32.6%)82 (32.9%)4.6%16.5%
 B-lactam3 (17.6%)14 (50.0%)10 (37.0%)14 (31.8%)15 (40.5%)56 (36.6%)22.9%129.7%
 Carbapenems0 (0.0%)4 (13.3%)3 (11.5%)4 (14.3%)6 (33.3%)17 (13.9%)33.3%
 Cephalosporins6 (27.3%)19 (63.3%)14 (48.3%)17 (34.7%)16 (43.2%)72 (43.1%)16.0%58.6%
 Fluoroquinolones4 (18.2%)21 (46.7%)19 (33.9%)12 (18.5%)11 (24.4%)67 (28.8%)6.3%34.4%
 MDR32 (8.0%)16 (35.6%)11 (22.4%)10 (17.2%)11 (23.9%)50 (22.4%)15.9%198.9%
 MDR42 (8.0%)5 (11.1%)3 (6.1%)7 (12.1%)7 (15.2%)24 (10.8%)7.2%90.2%
 MDR50 (0.0%)1 (2.2%)0 (0.0%)2 (3.4%)5 (10.9%)8 (3.6%)10.9%
Enterobacte
 Aminoglycosides0 (0.0%)7 (14.0%)2 (6.7%)5 (16.7%)2 (7.1%)16 (10.5%)7.1%
 B-lactam2 (50.0%)5 (22.7%)3 (37.5%)1 (50.0%)2 (50.0%)13 (32.5%)0.0%0.0%
 Carbapenems0 (0.0%)1 (6.7%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)1 (1.6%)0.0%
 Cephalosporins2 (50.0%)10 (52.6%)3 (50.0%)2 (33.3%)5 (55.6%)22 (50.0%)5.6%11.1%
 Fluoroquinolones0 (0.0%)4 (8.7%)2 (6.7%)0 (0.0%)3 (10.7%)9 (6.1%)10.7%
 MDR30 (0.0%)1 (3.6%)2 (16.7%)0 (0.0%)2 (13.3%)5 (6.2%)13.3%
 MDR40 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)1 (8.3%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)1 (1.2%)0.0%
 MDR50 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)0.0%
Escherichia coli
 Aminoglycosides5 (31.3%)14 (40.0%)14 (35.0%)12 (31.6%)9 (34.6%)54 (34.8%)3.4%10.8%
 B-lactam5 (45.5%)6 (28.6%)5 (35.7%)6 (23.1%)9 (60.0%)31 (35.6%)14.5%32.0%
 Carbapenems0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)1 (4.8%)3 (15.8%)4 (4.4%)15.8%
 Cephalosporins10 (66.7%)10 (45.5%)14 (56.0%)17 (47.2%)14 (53.8%)65 (52.4%)−12.8%−19.2%
 Fluoroquinolones7 (46.7%)13 (38.2%)18 (51.4%)18 (46.2%)9 (36.0%)65 (43.9%)−10.7%−22.9%
 MDR34 (26.7%)9 (34.6%)6 (18.8%)7 (18.9%)5 (19.2%)31 (22.8%)−7.4%−27.9%
 MDR43 (20.0%)1 (3.8%)2 (6.3%)3 (8.1%)4 (15.4%)13 (9.6%)−4.6%−23.1%
 MDR50 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)1 (2.7%)0 (0.0%)1 (0.7%)0.0%
Others*
 Aminoglycosides5 (50.0%)7 (25.9%)1 (11.1%)4 (23.5%)2 (16.7%)19 (25.3%)−33.3%−66.7%
 B-lactam3 (42.9%)2 (25.0%)1 (33.3%)2 (28.6%)2 (28.6%)10 (31.3%)−14.3%−33.3%
 Carbapenems3 (33.3%)9 (56.3%)2 (50.0%)2 (40.0%)7 (70.0%)23 (52.3%)36.7%110.0%
 Cephalosporins5 (55.6%)10 (52.6%)2 (33.3%)2 (22.2%)4 (40.0%)23 (43.4%)−15.6%−28.0%
 Fluoroquinolones2 (25.0%)7 (25.0%)1 (11.1%)3 (16.7%)1 (9.1%)14 (18.9%)−15.9%−63.6%
 MDR34 (40.0%)5 (29.4%)1 (16.7%)1 (9.1%)2 (22.2%)13 (24.5%)−17.8%−44.4%
 MDR42 (20.0%)2 (11.8%)0 (0.0%)1 (9.1%)1 (11.1%)6 (11.3%)−8.9%−44.4%
 MDR52 (20.0%)2 (11.8%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)1 (11.1%)5 (9.4%)−8.9%−44.4%
Overall
 Aminoglycosides32 (31.7%)75 (31.5%)48 (25.4%)50 (23.9%)34 (21.7%)239 (26.7%)−10.0%−31.6%
 B-lactam31 (41.9%)54 (36.7%)30 (33.0%)45 (31.5%)39 (36.8%)199 (35.5%)−5.1%−12.2%
 Carbapenems18 (19.4%)39 (32.2%)26 (28.3%)25 (26.3%)29 (35.4%)137 (28.4%)16.0%82.7%
 Cephalosporins48 (54.5%)93 (54.1%)52 (42.6%)60 (37.0%)51 (40.2%)304 (45.3%)−14.4%−26.4%
 Fluoroquinolones25 (26.0%)73 (32.3%)59 (32.8%)48 (23.3%)33 (21.7%)238 (27.7%)−4.3%−16.6%
 MDR323 (23.0%)61 (31.4%)39 (25.5%)33 (18.4%)28 (20.1%)184 (24.1%)−2.9%−12.4%
 MDR419 (19.0%)34 (17.5%)21 (13.7%)23 (12.8%)19 (13.7%)116 (15.2%)−5.3%−28.1%
 MDR511 (11.0%)12 (6.2%)6 (3.9%)12 (6.7%)12 (8.6%)53 (6.9%)−2.4%− 21.5%
  1. Abbreviations: Others include Serratia spp., Stenotrophomonas maltophia, Citrobacter spp., Proteus, and Providencia. MDR3, MDR4, MDR5 are multidrug resistant gram negative pathogens that non-susceptible (resistant or intermediate) to at least one agent in at least 3, 4, or 5 out of 5 antimicrobial classes (respectively). *Absolute change is the difference between 2015 and 2016 rate and 2007–2008 rate. Relative change is the proportion of absolute change relative to 2007–2008 rate