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Table 2 Characteristics of studies included in the meta-analysis of the type 2 comparison

From: Risk factors for carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infection relative to two types of control patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

StudyStudy designMatching ratioMatched factorsPeriodCountrySettingSample size, CRKP infection/without CRKP infectionAverage age (SD or range), CRKP infection/without CRKP infectionSex (male), CRKP infection/without CRKP infectionNOS points
Mouloudi, 2014 [37]Prospective cohort1:2During the same periodJanuary 2008–December 2011GreeceSingle center, 8-bed polyvalent ICU17/3454 (44–66)/55 (26–66)a10/195
Giannella, 2015 [38]Prospective cohortNANAJune 2010–December 2013ItalySingle center20/21763 ± 2.8/55 ± 1415/1437
Akgul, 2016 [39]Case-controlNAAt least 72 h in the same wards and period with the casesJanuary 2010–September 2014TurkeySingle center95/10066 (19–94)/58 (21–87)a63/626
Giannella, 2014 [36]Case–control1:4The time of the primary positive CRKP rectal swab (within the same month) and the time atrisk of having a subsequent infectionJanuary 2012–December 2013ItalyMulticenter (5 large tertiary-care teachinghospitals)143/57265 (52–75)/70 (58–81)a84/3076
Borer, 2012 [35]Case-control1:2Age within 5 years, same sex, time of admission ± 5 days, and similar length of time at risk ±2 daysMay 2007–January 2010IsraelSingle center42/8472 (19–91)/72.5 (21–95)aNA6
Yang, 2016 [40]Case-control1:2Month of admission, ward, as well as interval days (interval from admission to confirmation of the index culture)January 2012–December 2013ChinaSingle center370/74085 (80–87)/74 (59–84)a321/4347
Micozzi, 2017 [41]Retrospective cohortNANA24 February 2012–31 May 2013ItalySingle center11/8NA5/85
Mazza, 2017 [42]Retrospective cohortNANAJanuary 2012–December 2015ItalySingle center8/302NANA6
Varotti, 2017 [43]Case-control1:2The patient transplanted chronologically before and the patient transplanted chronologically after the study patientJanuary 2010–June 2015ItalySingle center26/5259 ± 13/53 ± 1421/438
Salsano, 2016 [44]Retrospective cohortNANAJanuary 2104–December 2014ItalySingle center32/52174 (67–77)/71 (63–77)a17/3626
Kontopoulou, 2019 [45]Case-cohortNANAJune 2011–August 2014GreeceSingle center, 8-bed medical and surgical ICU48/17860/63cNA6
Gallagher, 2014 [46]Case-case-control1:1Location (hospital unit) and time (within 30 days)June 2005–October 2010USASingle center43/4356/58b26/266
Kalpoe, 2012 [47]RetrospectivecohortNANA1 January 2005–1 October 2006USASingle center14/16157 (52–71)/55 (23–78)a9/1336
Akturk, 2016 [48]Case-controlNANAJanuary 2010–December2014TurkeySingle center, pediatric and neonatal ICUs24/6153 ± 14.7/23.5 ± 5.8NA6
  1. Abbreviations: CRKP Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, SD Standard deviation, NOS Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, ICU Intensive care unit, NA Not available
  2. aAge, median (range), years
  3. bAge, mean, years
  4. cAge, median, years