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Table 3 Meta-analysis of risk factors for CRKP infection in the type 1 comparison

From: Risk factors for carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infection relative to two types of control patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

 Number of included studiesSample size, CRKP infection/CSKP infectionHeterogeneityEffects modelOR or MD [95% CI]ZPEgger’s test, P >|t|
χ2PI2
LOS3191/23010.020.00780%Random15.28 [1.11, 29.46] a2.110.03*0.329
Prior hospitalization (within the previous 6 months)4230/1725.670.1347%Fixed1.91 [1.23, 2.97]2.890.004*0.480
Admission to ICU10684/87431.800.000272%Random3.20 [1.97, 5.18]4.72<0.00001*0.796
Length of ICU stay3259/1964.840.0959%Random−1.78 [−9.25, 5.68] a0.470.640.909
APACHE II score on ICU admission5253/15710.950.0363%Random0.91 [−1.28, 3.10] a0.820.410.692
Hypertension3148/2000.080.960%Fixed0.97 [0.61, 1.55]0.120.910.271
Diabetes13757/80010.800.550%Fixed1.12 [0.88, 1.43]0.940.350.874
Respiratory disease3149/1180.770.680%Fixed1.34 [0.71, 2.55]0.910.370.294
Heart disorders5305/2903.790.440%Fixed1.25 [0.87, 1.78]1.200.230.594
Acute renal failure3261/1980.950.620%Fixed1.12 [0.68, 1.85]0.460.650.156
Chronic renal failure6460/4947.240.2031%Fixed1.25 [0.89, 1.73]1.300.190.580
Renal dysfunction3213/2792.260.3211%Fixed2.17 [1.32, 3.56]3.070.002*0.072
Liver disease5313/2432.170.700%Fixed1.40 [0.88, 2.23]1.430.150.665
Neurological disorders5289/2351.510.830%Fixed1.52 [1.04, 2.24]2.150.03*0.081
Hematological disorders3177/1220.780.680%Fixed2.83 [0.82, 9.72]1.650.100.772
Malignancy5343/3745.500.2427%Fixed0.84 [0.55, 1.28]0.820.410.306
Trauma3168/2190.820.660%Fixed0.58 [0.30, 1.12]1.630.100.324
Immunosuppression3135/1242.250.3211%Fixed1.49 [0.71, 3.13]1.040.300.106
Steroid therapy3174/1741.090.580%Fixed1.44 [0.85, 2.44]1.340.180.108
Chemotherapy3148/1870.160.920%Fixed1.03 [0.47, 2.26]0.070.950.169
Prior surgery11616/62822.470.0155%Random1.31 [0.88, 1.94]1.330.180.723
Tracheostomy6385/46818.300.00373%Random2.11 [1.03, 4.32]2.050.04*0.769
Mechanical ventilation12764/94741.95<0.000174%Random2.70 [1.68, 4.33]4.12<0.0001*0.901
CVC9642/70630.000.000273%Random2.62 [1.44, 4.76]3.160.002*0.871
Urinary catheter10532/60622.300.00860%Random1.99 [1.28, 3.09]3.040.002*0.626
Nasogastric tube6250/24617.200.00471%Random2.62 [1.20, 5.68]2.430.02*0.623
Dialysis7378/5273.010.810%Fixed3.56 [2.39, 5.31]6.25<0.00001*0.592
Parenteral nutrition4231/1786.640.0855%Random1.59 [0.72, 3.49]1.150.250.448
Enteral feeding3178/1302.020.361%Fixed1.35 [0.78, 2.35]1.080.280.843
Prior antibiotic use6352/50720.640.000976%Random6.07 [2.03, 18.18]3.220.001*0.133
Penicillin3185/2827.070.0372%Random2.18 [0.75, 6.35]1.420.150.408
Cephalosporins7468/51331.51<0.000181%Random1.45 [0.70, 2.99]1.000.320.148
Second-generation cephalosporins3149/1350.130.940%Fixed1.62 [0.75, 3.47]1.230.220.357
Third-generation cephalosporins3112/1574.610.1057%Random2.05 [0.83, 5.06]1.560.120.756
Carbapenems12658/77425.570.00857%Random4.16 [2.75, 6.29]6.76<0.00001*0.954
β-lactam+β-lactamase inhibitor5262/27313.210.0170%Random2.06 [1.01, 4.20]2.000.050.276
Aminoglycosides12669/76510.470.490%Fixed1.85 [1.32, 2.60]3.540.0004*0.770
Quinolones8420/53120.850.00466%Random2.11 [1.15, 3.87]2.420.02*0.324
Fluoroquinolones4249/2340.570.900%Fixed2.03 [1.28, 3.24]2.980.003*0.184
Glycopeptides4191/2300.690.880%Fixed3.70 [2.31, 5.94]5.43<0.00001*0.677
Vancomycin3195/2923.640.1645%Fixed2.82 [1.86, 4.28]4.87<0.00001*0.930
Macrolides4254/40410.120.0270%Random2.46 [0.44, 13.87]1.020.310.571
Metronidazole4201/2400.520.920%Fixed0.85 [0.50, 1.43]0.620.540.491
  1. Abbreviations: CRKP Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, CSKP Carbapenem-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae, OR Odds ratio, MD Mean difference, CI Confidence interval, LOS Length of hospital stay, ICU Intensive care unit, APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, CVC Central venous catheter
  2. aMean difference
  3. * Statistically significant differences between groups (α = 0.05)