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Table 1 Characteristics of studies included in review, 2014-2019

From: Risk factors for fecal carriage of drug-resistant Escherichia coli: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, year Country Study population Study design Study period Sample size Pathogen type
Arcilla 2017 Netherlands Travellers Prospective cohort study 2012 Nov - 2013 Nov 1847 ESBL-PE, CPE
Angelin 2015 Sweden Travellers Prospective study 2010 Apr - 2014 Jan 99 E. coli
Caudell 2018* Tanzania General adult Prospective study 2012 Mar - 2015 Jul 226* E. coli
Dohmen 2017 Netherlands Employees in a pig slaughterhouse Prospective study 2015 Jun 334 E. coli
Dohmen 2017* Netherlands Pig farmers, family members and employees Longitudinal study 2011 Mar - 2011 Oct 146 ESBL-PE
Lubbert 2015 Germany Travellers Prospective cohort study 2013 May - 2014 Apr 191 ESBL-PE
McNulty 2018 England General adult Retrospective cohort study 2013 - 2014 2430 ESBL-PE
Miranda 2016 Germany Travellers Retrospective study 2013 Feb - 2014 Apr 211 ESBL-PE
Mo 2019 Singapore General adult Cross sectional study 2016 Jun - 2017 Apr 305 ESBL-PE
Reuland 2016 Netherlands General adult Case control study 2011 Jun - 2011 Nov 1695 ESBL-PE
Reuland 2015 Netherlands General adult Case control study 2011 Aug - 2011 Dec 550 pAmpC producing E. coli
Ruh 2019 Northern Cyprus General adult Retrospective cohort study 2017 Sep - 2017 Dec 500 Enterobacteriaceae
Sanneh 2018* Gambia Food handlers Cross sectional study 2015 Jul - 2015 Sep 565 Enterobacteriaceae
Vading 2016 Sweden Travellers Prospective cohort study 2013 Apr - 2015 May 175 ESBL E. coli
Wielders 2017 Netherlands General adult Cross sectional study 2012 Nov 2432 ESBL-PE
  1. Note: ** not included in meta-analysis. *indicates sample size was households (all others are individuals). ESBL-PE = Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae; CPE = Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae