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Table 1 Characteristics of studies included in review, 2014-2019

From: Risk factors for fecal carriage of drug-resistant Escherichia coli: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, yearCountryStudy populationStudy designStudy periodSample sizePathogen type
Arcilla 2017NetherlandsTravellersProspective cohort study2012 Nov - 2013 Nov1847ESBL-PE, CPE
Angelin 2015SwedenTravellersProspective study2010 Apr - 2014 Jan99E. coli
Caudell 2018*TanzaniaGeneral adultProspective study2012 Mar - 2015 Jul226*E. coli
Dohmen 2017NetherlandsEmployees in a pig slaughterhouseProspective study2015 Jun334E. coli
Dohmen 2017*NetherlandsPig farmers, family members and employeesLongitudinal study2011 Mar - 2011 Oct146ESBL-PE
Lubbert 2015GermanyTravellersProspective cohort study2013 May - 2014 Apr191ESBL-PE
McNulty 2018EnglandGeneral adultRetrospective cohort study2013 - 20142430ESBL-PE
Miranda 2016GermanyTravellersRetrospective study2013 Feb - 2014 Apr211ESBL-PE
Mo 2019SingaporeGeneral adultCross sectional study2016 Jun - 2017 Apr305ESBL-PE
Reuland 2016NetherlandsGeneral adultCase control study2011 Jun - 2011 Nov1695ESBL-PE
Reuland 2015NetherlandsGeneral adultCase control study2011 Aug - 2011 Dec550pAmpC producing E. coli
Ruh 2019Northern CyprusGeneral adultRetrospective cohort study2017 Sep - 2017 Dec500Enterobacteriaceae
Sanneh 2018*GambiaFood handlersCross sectional study2015 Jul - 2015 Sep565Enterobacteriaceae
Vading 2016SwedenTravellersProspective cohort study2013 Apr - 2015 May175ESBL E. coli
Wielders 2017NetherlandsGeneral adultCross sectional study2012 Nov2432ESBL-PE
  1. Note: ** not included in meta-analysis. *indicates sample size was households (all others are individuals). ESBL-PE = Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae; CPE = Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae