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Table 2 Commonly assessed risk factors for intestinal carriage of drug-resistant E. coli, 2014-2019. OR = Odds Ratio; CI = Confidence interval. Note: *indicates results from systematic review

From: Risk factors for fecal carriage of drug-resistant Escherichia coli: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Risk factor Number of studies investigated* Number of studies finding significant association* Number of samples assessed Number of samples with drug resistant bacteria Pooled OR (95%CI) χ2(P-value) l2
General factors
Gender 11 1 9836 1428 1.16 (0.98-1.36) 8.77 (0.46) 0
Diet restriction (vegetarian) 5 2 6802 989 1.60 (1.00-2.56) 3.22 (0.52) 0
Pet 4 1 5159 407 1.15 (0.33-4.06) 5.23 (0.16) 43
Education level 4 0 5067 925 0.93 (0.74-1.17) 0.98 (0.81) 0
Smoking 4 1 4497 712 0.77 (0.18-3.25) 6.37 (0.04) 69
Clinical factors
Antimicrobial use 13 6 10079 1407 1.84 (1.35-2.51) 18.28 (0.05) 45
Previous hospital admission 7 2 6108 465 1.63 (0.84-3.18) 7.83 (0.17) 36
Diarrhea 7 4 5144 1079 1.56 (1.09-2.25) 5.76 (0.33) 13
Proton-pump inhibitor use 3 2 4111 359 1.31 (0.11-15.5) 5.81 (0.05) 66
Chronic disease 3 2 2323 766 0.91 (0.13-6.53) 8.68 (0.01) 77
Travel related factors
International travel 6 2 6460 520 1.13 (0.67-1.91) 10.73 (0.06) 53
Travel to Southeast Asia 8 4 6632 1289 1.78 (0.64-4.98) 50.28 (<0.01) 86
Travel to Africa 5 2 6692 1105 1.29 (0.52-3.21) 81.34 (<0.01) 94
Travel to India 4 4 2953 423 4.15 (2.54-6.78) 2.50 (0.48) 0
  1. OR = Odds Ratio; CI = Confidence interval. Note: *indicates results from systematic review