Skip to main content

Table 2 Commonly assessed risk factors for intestinal carriage of drug-resistant E. coli, 2014-2019. OR = Odds Ratio; CI = Confidence interval. Note: *indicates results from systematic review

From: Risk factors for fecal carriage of drug-resistant Escherichia coli: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Risk factorNumber of studies investigated*Number of studies finding significant association*Number of samples assessedNumber of samples with drug resistant bacteriaPooled OR (95%CI)χ2(P-value)l2
General factors
Gender111983614281.16 (0.98-1.36)8.77 (0.46)0
Diet restriction (vegetarian)5268029891.60 (1.00-2.56)3.22 (0.52)0
Pet4151594071.15 (0.33-4.06)5.23 (0.16)43
Education level4050679250.93 (0.74-1.17)0.98 (0.81)0
Smoking4144977120.77 (0.18-3.25)6.37 (0.04)69
Clinical factors
Antimicrobial use1361007914071.84 (1.35-2.51)18.28 (0.05)45
Previous hospital admission7261084651.63 (0.84-3.18)7.83 (0.17)36
Diarrhea74514410791.56 (1.09-2.25)5.76 (0.33)13
Proton-pump inhibitor use3241113591.31 (0.11-15.5)5.81 (0.05)66
Chronic disease3223237660.91 (0.13-6.53)8.68 (0.01)77
Travel related factors
International travel6264605201.13 (0.67-1.91)10.73 (0.06)53
Travel to Southeast Asia84663212891.78 (0.64-4.98)50.28 (<0.01)86
Travel to Africa52669211051.29 (0.52-3.21)81.34 (<0.01)94
Travel to India4429534234.15 (2.54-6.78)2.50 (0.48)0
  1. OR = Odds Ratio; CI = Confidence interval. Note: *indicates results from systematic review