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Table 1 Different study designs used in data collection on antimicrobial use and resistance

From: Antimicrobial use and resistance in food-producing animals and the environment: an African perspective

Sample type Study type Approach Number of articles
Food animals Cross sectional Surveillance (Questionnaire, observation and/or focus group discussion and in-depth interview) 9
Food animals Cross sectional Laboratory analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility and resistant organisms 92
Food animals Cross sectional Laboratory and surveillance 14
Fish Cross sectional Laboratory analysis of the resistant organism(s) 7
Environment Cross sectional Laboratory analysis of the resistant organism(s) 26
Food animals and environment Cross sectional Surveillance with laboratory analysis 9
Food animals and environment Retrospective Surveillance and laboratory analysis of the resistant organisms 3
  1. Food animals referred here includes all domestic animals farmed for food consumption (cattle, sheep, goats, poultry, camel, horse, rabbit and donkey); Fish involved those captured from natural water bodies (river, streams, dams and ocean) and the environment samples involved treated waste water, effluent, surface water, river and ocean water, sediments and soil