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Table 1 Different study designs used in data collection on antimicrobial use and resistance

From: Antimicrobial use and resistance in food-producing animals and the environment: an African perspective

Sample typeStudy typeApproachNumber of articles
Food animalsCross sectionalSurveillance (Questionnaire, observation and/or focus group discussion and in-depth interview)9
Food animalsCross sectionalLaboratory analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility and resistant organisms92
Food animalsCross sectionalLaboratory and surveillance14
FishCross sectionalLaboratory analysis of the resistant organism(s)7
EnvironmentCross sectionalLaboratory analysis of the resistant organism(s)26
Food animals and environmentCross sectionalSurveillance with laboratory analysis9
Food animals and environmentRetrospectiveSurveillance and laboratory analysis of the resistant organisms3
  1. Food animals referred here includes all domestic animals farmed for food consumption (cattle, sheep, goats, poultry, camel, horse, rabbit and donkey); Fish involved those captured from natural water bodies (river, streams, dams and ocean) and the environment samples involved treated waste water, effluent, surface water, river and ocean water, sediments and soil