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Table 3 Proportion of MDR strains among Escherichia coli isolated from food animals

From: Antimicrobial use and resistance in food-producing animals and the environment: an African perspective

Sample type % MDR Antimicrobial class resisted References
Poultry 92.6 Tetracycline, Penicillin, Quinolones, Phenocols, Sulphonamides, Cephalosporins [36]
Cattle, goat, sheep, pig, poultry 91.6 Tetracycline, Penicillin, Phenocols, Aminoglycosides, Sulphonamides [21]
Poultry 42.9 Tetracycline, Sulphonamides, Penicillin, Aminoglycosides, Quinolones, Phenocols, Cephalosporins [37]
Poultry, pigs 20 Quinolones, Sulphonamides, Macrolides, Tetracycline, Phenocols, Penicillin, Aminoglycosides [38]
Cattle 100 Phenocols, Penicillin, Tetracycline, Cephalosporins, Sulphonamides, Aminoglycosides, Quinolones [39]
Poultry 62 Tetracycline, Quinolones, Sulphonamides [40]
Cattle, pigs 93.4 Tetracycline, Sulphonamides, Macrolides [41]
Cattle, pigs poultry 45.5 Tetracycline, Penicillin, Sulphonamides, Dihydrofolate, Penams, Macrolides, Cephalosporins, Clavam [42]
Poultry 83 Tetracycline, Sulphonamides, Quinolones, Aminoglycosides, Dihydrofolate, Penicillin, Phenocols [43]
Poultry 80 Quinolones, Tetracycline, Penicillin, Aminoglycosides, Sulphonamides, Phenocols [44]
Poultry 100 Tetracycline, Penicillin, Quinolones, Aminoglycosides [45]
Cattle, pigs, poultry 65.5 Tetracycline, Sulphonamides, Penicillin, Aminoglycosides, Quinolones, Clavam Glycopeptide, Cephalosporins, Dihydrofolate [46]
Poultry 40 Tetracycline, Dihydrofolate, Phenocols Sulphonamides, Aminoglycosides [47]
Fish 54.5 Cephalosporins, Aminoglycosides, Sulphonamides, Quinolones [48]
Poultry 90 Penicillin, Clavam, Penams, Quinolones Cephalosporins, Aminoglycosides [49]
Pigs 80 Penicillin, Penams, Tetracycline, Quinolones, Cephalosporins, Aminoglycosides [50]
Poultry 80 Penicillin, Macrolides, Aminoglycosides,
Tetracycline, Sulphonamides, Phenocols, Dihydrofolate, Quinolones
[33]
Poultry 100 Tetracycline, Quinolones, Dihydrofolate, Sulphonamides, Aminoglycosides [51]
Poultry 65 Tetracycline, Penicillin, Sulphonamides,
Phenocols
[52]
Fish 100 Aminoglycosides, Cephalosporins, Phenocols, Tetracycline, Sulphonamides, Dihydrofolate, Clavam, Penicillin [53]