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Table 3 Proportion of MDR strains among Escherichia coli isolated from food animals

From: Antimicrobial use and resistance in food-producing animals and the environment: an African perspective

Sample type% MDRAntimicrobial class resistedReferences
Poultry92.6Tetracycline, Penicillin, Quinolones, Phenocols, Sulphonamides, Cephalosporins[36]
Cattle, goat, sheep, pig, poultry91.6Tetracycline, Penicillin, Phenocols, Aminoglycosides, Sulphonamides[21]
Poultry42.9Tetracycline, Sulphonamides, Penicillin, Aminoglycosides, Quinolones, Phenocols, Cephalosporins[37]
Poultry, pigs20Quinolones, Sulphonamides, Macrolides, Tetracycline, Phenocols, Penicillin, Aminoglycosides[38]
Cattle100Phenocols, Penicillin, Tetracycline, Cephalosporins, Sulphonamides, Aminoglycosides, Quinolones[39]
Poultry62Tetracycline, Quinolones, Sulphonamides[40]
Cattle, pigs93.4Tetracycline, Sulphonamides, Macrolides[41]
Cattle, pigs poultry45.5Tetracycline, Penicillin, Sulphonamides, Dihydrofolate, Penams, Macrolides, Cephalosporins, Clavam[42]
Poultry83Tetracycline, Sulphonamides, Quinolones, Aminoglycosides, Dihydrofolate, Penicillin, Phenocols[43]
Poultry80Quinolones, Tetracycline, Penicillin, Aminoglycosides, Sulphonamides, Phenocols[44]
Poultry100Tetracycline, Penicillin, Quinolones, Aminoglycosides[45]
Cattle, pigs, poultry65.5Tetracycline, Sulphonamides, Penicillin, Aminoglycosides, Quinolones, Clavam Glycopeptide, Cephalosporins, Dihydrofolate[46]
Poultry40Tetracycline, Dihydrofolate, Phenocols Sulphonamides, Aminoglycosides[47]
Fish54.5Cephalosporins, Aminoglycosides, Sulphonamides, Quinolones[48]
Poultry90Penicillin, Clavam, Penams, Quinolones Cephalosporins, Aminoglycosides[49]
Pigs80Penicillin, Penams, Tetracycline, Quinolones, Cephalosporins, Aminoglycosides[50]
Poultry80Penicillin, Macrolides, Aminoglycosides,
Tetracycline, Sulphonamides, Phenocols, Dihydrofolate, Quinolones
[33]
Poultry100Tetracycline, Quinolones, Dihydrofolate, Sulphonamides, Aminoglycosides[51]
Poultry65Tetracycline, Penicillin, Sulphonamides,
Phenocols
[52]
Fish100Aminoglycosides, Cephalosporins, Phenocols, Tetracycline, Sulphonamides, Dihydrofolate, Clavam, Penicillin[53]