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Table 4 Percentage of MDR Escherichia coli from environmental samples

From: Antimicrobial use and resistance in food-producing animals and the environment: an African perspective

CountrySample type%MDRAntimicrobial classReferences
South AfricaTreated Waste water75.9Lincosamides, Sulphonamides, Carbapenems, Quinolones, Penicillin, Tetracycline, Polypeptide, Dihydrofolate, Aminoglycosides, Cephalosporins Macrolides[55]
South AfricaRiver water, Sediments84Furans, Penicillin, Clavam, Quinolones, Phenocols,
Dihydrofolate, Cephalosporins
[56]
EthiopiaDrinking water66.7Penicillin, Clavam, Quinolones, Cephalosporins, Tetracycline, Phenocols, Sulphonamides, Aminoglycosides[57]
South AfricaRiver water100Penicillin, Tetracycline, Aminoglycosides, Cephalosporins, Quinolones, Dihydrofolate[58]
South AfricaTreated waste water33.3Tetracycline, Penicillin, Furanes, Aminoglycosides, Cephalosporins, Phenocols, Quinolones, Polypeptide, Lipopeptides[59]
AlgeriaTreated waste water85Cephalosporins, Quinolones, Sulphonamides, Aminoglycosides,
Tetracycline, Phenocols
[60]
AlgeriaRiver water100Penicillin, Clavam, Monobactams[61]
EgyptRiver water82.5Penicillin, Glycopeptides,
Macrolides, Lincosamides,
Dihydrofolate, Tetracycline, Sulphonamides
[62]
TunisiaWaste, Surface water76Aminoglycosides, Dihydrofolate, Quinolones, Sulphonamides, Phenocols, Tetracycline, Cephalosporins[6]
TanzaniaDomestic, Biomedical waste, River sludge56Aminoglycosides, Cephalosporins,
Quinolones, Penicillin
[63]