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Table 4 Percentage of MDR Escherichia coli from environmental samples

From: Antimicrobial use and resistance in food-producing animals and the environment: an African perspective

Country Sample type %MDR Antimicrobial class References
South Africa Treated Waste water 75.9 Lincosamides, Sulphonamides, Carbapenems, Quinolones, Penicillin, Tetracycline, Polypeptide, Dihydrofolate, Aminoglycosides, Cephalosporins Macrolides [55]
South Africa River water, Sediments 84 Furans, Penicillin, Clavam, Quinolones, Phenocols,
Dihydrofolate, Cephalosporins
[56]
Ethiopia Drinking water 66.7 Penicillin, Clavam, Quinolones, Cephalosporins, Tetracycline, Phenocols, Sulphonamides, Aminoglycosides [57]
South Africa River water 100 Penicillin, Tetracycline, Aminoglycosides, Cephalosporins, Quinolones, Dihydrofolate [58]
South Africa Treated waste water 33.3 Tetracycline, Penicillin, Furanes, Aminoglycosides, Cephalosporins, Phenocols, Quinolones, Polypeptide, Lipopeptides [59]
Algeria Treated waste water 85 Cephalosporins, Quinolones, Sulphonamides, Aminoglycosides,
Tetracycline, Phenocols
[60]
Algeria River water 100 Penicillin, Clavam, Monobactams [61]
Egypt River water 82.5 Penicillin, Glycopeptides,
Macrolides, Lincosamides,
Dihydrofolate, Tetracycline, Sulphonamides
[62]
Tunisia Waste, Surface water 76 Aminoglycosides, Dihydrofolate, Quinolones, Sulphonamides, Phenocols, Tetracycline, Cephalosporins [6]
Tanzania Domestic, Biomedical waste, River sludge 56 Aminoglycosides, Cephalosporins,
Quinolones, Penicillin
[63]