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Table 2 Proportion of household responses (mean and 95% confidence interval) for questions regarding water, sanitation, and hygiene-related practices at enrollment (V1) and over nine sampling visits

From: Carriage of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in a high-density informal settlement in Kenya is associated with environmental risk-factors

Water Sanitation Hygiene
  V1 Mean [95% CI]   V1 Mean [95% CI]   V1 Mean [95% CI]
Type of water sourcea Type of toilet used during daytime Washed hands after urination only [last 3 toilet visits]
Private-protected 0.40 0.36 [0.29, 0.43] Flush toilet 0.45 0.48 [0.46, 0.50] 1 out of 3 events 0.16 0.09 [0.06, 0.12]
Public-protected 0.52 0.61 [0.53, 0.69] Ventilated-improved pit 0.03 0.04 [0.03, 0.05] 2 out of 3 events 0.20 0.14 [0.10, 0.18]
Private-unprotected 0.01 0.01 [0.00, 0.02] Pit with slab 0.41 0.34 [0.32, 0.36] All 3 events 0.64 0.77 [0.70, 0.84]
Public-unprotected 0.09 0.03 [− 0.01, 0.07] Traditional pit latrined 0.12 0.13 [0.12, 0.14] cWashed with soapc [yes] 0.80 0.83 [0.79, 0.87]
Time taken to go, collect water, and return Households sharing same daytime toilet facility Washed hands after defecation [last 3 toilet visits]
5 min or less 0.28 0.19 [0.16, 0.22] 1–10 0.21 0.20 [0.19, 0.21] 1 out of 3 events 0.08 0.02 [0.00, 0.04]
5–9 min 0.34 0.44 [0.39, 0.49] 11–50 0.30 0.26 [0.24, 0.28] 2 out of 3 events 0.18 0.10 [0.06, 0.14]
10–14 min 0.18 0.18 [0.15, 0.21] 51–100 0.44 0.33 [0.23, 0.43] All 3 events 0.74 0.88 [0.83, 0.93]
 ≥ 15 min 0.20 0.19 [0.16, 0.22]  > 100 0.06 0.21 [0.11, 0.31] Washed with soapc [yes] 0.74 0.90 [0.85, 0.95]
Water unavailable at source in the last 14 days Frequency of toilet cleaning during the last 14 days Washed hands before feeding baby [last 3 feeding events]
1–6 days 0.44 0.13 [0.04, 0.22] Daily 0.47 0.56 [0.53, 0.59] 1 out of 3 events 0.09 0.05 [0.04, 0.06]
7–14 days 0.08 0.02 [0.01, 0.03] Alternate days 0.21 0.16 [0.13, 0.19] 2 out of 3 events 0.23 0.12 [0.07, 0.17]
Methods used to make water safer to drinkb Occasionally 0.26 0.23 [0.22, 0.24] All 3 events 0.67 0.83 [0.77, 0.89]
Boiling 0.65 0.52 [0.47, 0.57] Location of daytime toilet facility Washed with soapc [yes] 0.69 0.86 [0.81, 0.91]
Chemical cleansers 0.54 0.62 [0.57, 0.67] Within HH compound 0.30 0.32 [0.31, 0.33] Location of hand-washing station
Frequency of water treatment in last 14 daysb Outside HH compound 0.70 0.68 [0.67, 0.69] Within household compound 0.25 0.25 [0.19, 0.31]
Every collection 0.71 0.75 [0.70, 0.80] Type of toilet used during the night Around kitchen area 0.32 0.45 [0.41, 0.49]
Occasionally 0.29 0.25 [0.20, 0.30] Flush toilet 0.16 0.07 [0.04, 0.1] Elsewhere [excl. kitchen/toilet] 0.46 0.37 [0.30, 0.44]
Last household water treatmentb Ventilated-improved pit 0.03 0.04 [0.03, 0.05] Nonspecific 0.61 0.59 [0.56, 0.62]
Today/yesterday 0.21 0.26 [0.23, 0.29] Pit with concrete slab 0.39 0.37 [0.36, 0.38] Time spent by the enrolled child outside household
2–6 days ago 0.67 0.63 [0.58, 0.68] Traditional pit latrine 0.12 0.13 [0.12, 0.14] 1–2 h 0.15 0.14 [0.13, 0.15]
 ≥ 7 days ago 0.11 0.11 [0.08, 0.14] Bucket/plastic bags 0.29 0.35 [0.32, 0.38] 3–4 h 0.21 0.19 [0.16, 0.22]
    Open areas around HH 0.02 0.03 [0.02, 0.04] 5 + h 0.30 0.21 [0.16, 0.26]
       Places where the enrolled child spends time
       Plays in school compound 0.00 0.01 [− 0.03, 0.05]
       Within household environment 0.93 0.87 [0.83, 0.91]
       Relative in another household 0.07 0.12 [0.09, 0.15]
       Enrolled child eats soil [yes] 0.55 0.49 [0.37, 0.61]
  1. Two hundred households were enrolled
  2. HH household
  3. aA protected source prevents water contamination by the environment e.g., a source covered with a concrete slab or a completely covered tank
  4. bApplies only to households that reported treating water (mean = 44%)
  5. cApplies to those who reported washing hands mean = 80% (urination), 98% (defecation) or 87% (feeding baby)
  6. dSingle pit covered by a wooden, earthen, or concrete slab with a drop hole