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Table 3 Multivariable regression analysis for antimicrobial resistance load (Log10 CFU) at the household level

From: Carriage of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in a high-density informal settlement in Kenya is associated with environmental risk-factors

Predictor Ampicillin Streptomycin Sulfamethoxazole Tetracycline Trimethoprim
β [95% CI] β [95% CI] β [95% CI] β [95% CI] β [95% CI]
Night toilet type      
 Ventilator improved pit 0.46 [− 0.34, 1.26] 0.32 [− 0.59, 1.23] 0.07 [− 0.59, 0.74] − 0.27 [− 1.22, 0.67] − 0.06 [− 0.69, 0.57]
 Pit with concrete slab 0.49 [0.00, 0.99] 0.50 [− 0.06, 1.07] 0.13 [− 0.28, 0.54] − 0.13 [− 0.71, 0.46] − 0.04 [− 0.43, 0.35]
 Traditional pit latrinea 0.03 [− 0.58, 0.63] 0.25 [− 0.44, 0.94] − 0.07 [− 0.57, 0.43] − 0.79 [− 1.51, − 0.08] − 0.07 [− 0.54, 0.40]
 Bucket/plastic 0.26 [− 0.23, 0.75] 0.23 [− 0.32, 0.79] − 0.06 [− 0.47, 0.34] − 0.62 [− 1.19, − 0.04] − 0.24 [− 0.62, 0.15]
 No facilities/open field 0.46 [− 0.29, 1.22] 0.03 [− 0.82, 0.88] − 0.02 [− 0.64, 0.60] − 0.71 [− 1.59, 0.18] − 0.64 [− 1.23, − 0.04]
Handwashing with soap 0.20 [0.01, 0.40] 0.21 [− 0.01, 0.43] 0.07 [− 0.09, 0.23] 0.19 [− 0.03, 0.42] 0.10 [− 0.06, 0.25]
Handwashing facility location      
 Toilet within premises 0.14 [− 0.15, 0.43] 0.13 [− 0.19, 0.46] 0.10 [− 0.13, 0.34] 0.25 [− 0.09, 0.59] 0.17 [− 0.05, 0.4]
 Elsewhere on premisesb 0.47 [0.20, 0.73] 0.28 [− 0.02, 0.58] 0.35 [0.13, 0.57] 0.36 [0.05, 0.67] 0.22 [0.01, 0.43]
 No designated place − 0.28 [− 0.55, − 0.02] − 0.13 [− 0.44, 0.17] 0.04 [− 0.18, 0.26] 0.26 [− 0.05, 0.58] − 0.21 [− 0.42, 0.00]
Enrolled child      
 Time spent outside (h) 0.00 [− 0.05, 0.05] − 0.01 [− 0.08, 0.05] 0.01 [− 0.03, 0.06] 0.03 [− 0.03, 0.09] 0.00 [− 0.04, 0.04]
 Eats soil 0.51 [0.26, 0.77] 0.39 [0.10, 0.68] 0.27 [0.06, 0.48] 0.54 [0.24, 0.84] 0.28 [0.08, 0.48]
Rainfall (per mm) − 2.56 [− 3.60, − 1.52] − 1.23 [− 2.40, − 0.06] − 0.57 [− 1.42, 0.28] 1.18 [− 0.03, 2.40] − 1.19 [− 2.00, − 0.37]
Mother’s education level      
 Primary school − 0.52 [− 1.17, 0.14] − 0.72 [− 1.48, 0.05] − 0.25 [− 0.82, 0.32] − 0.11 [− 0.91, 0.68] 0.02 [− 0.50, 0.53]
 High school − 0.87 [− 1.58, − 0.16] − 0.91 [− 1.73, − 0.08] − 0.29 [− 0.90, 0.32] − 0.26 [− 1.11, 0.60] 0.02 [− 0.53, 0.57]
 College − 0.93 [− 1.90, 0.05] − 1.40 [− 2.53, − 0.26] − 0.32 [− 1.16, 0.52] − 0.70 [− 1.88, 0.47] 0.19 [− 0.57, 0.95]
Respondent age (years) − 0.02 [− 0.03, − 0.02] − 0.01 [− 0.02, 0.00] 0.00 [− 0.01, 0.00] 0.00 [− 0.01, 0.00] − 0.01 [− 0.01, 0.00]
  1. Only variables with P < 0·2 in the univariable mixed-effects model were included in the multivariable model. Regression estimates for increasing or decreasing antimicrobial load (positive or negative β coefficients, respectively) and 95% confidence intervals with P < 0·05 are shown in bold. Only variables with significant values are shown. See Additional file 4 for complete table
  2. aSingle pit covered by a wooden, earthen or concrete slab with a drop hole
  3. bOther than at a toilet facility or the household kitchen