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Table 4 Multivariable regression analysis for antimicrobial resistance load (Log10 CFU) at the adult level (≥ 18 years)

From: Carriage of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in a high-density informal settlement in Kenya is associated with environmental risk-factors

Predictor Ampicillin Streptomycin Sulfamethoxazole Tetracycline Trimethoprim
β [95% CI] β [95% CI] β [95% CI] β [95% CI] β [95% CI]
Main water sourcea      
 Public-protected − 0.47 [− 0.89, − 0.05] − 0.30 [− 0.75, 0.16] − 0.08 [− 0.39, 0.22] − 0.19 [− 0.65, 0.27] -0.26 [-0.55, 0.03]
 Private-unprotected 0.36 [− 1.88, 2.60] 0.49 [− 1.88, 2.86] 0.12 [− 1.52, 1.76] 0.83 [− 1.57, 3.23] 0.16 [-1.46, 1.78]
 Public-unprotected − 0.27 [− 1.25, 0.70] − 0.09 [− 1.12, 0.95] − 0.29 [− 1.00, 0.42] 0.24 [− 0.80, 1.29] -0.34 [-1.04, 0.35]
Handwashing after urination 0.07 [− 0.08, 0.23] − 0.03 [− 0.19, 0.14] 0.04 [− 0.08, 0.15] 0.18 [0.01, 0.34] 0.04 [-0.07, 0.15]
Handwashing facility location      
 Toilet within premises 0.23 [− 0.18, 0.64] 0.12 [− 0.31, 0.56] 0.05 [− 0.24, 0.35] 0.23 [− 0.21, 0.67] 0.11 [-0.17, 0.40]
Elsewhere on premises 0.51 [0.15, 0.88] 0.20 [− 0.19, 0.59] 0.30 [0.04, 0.57] 0.42 [0.02, 0.81] 0.29 [0.03, 0.54]
 No designated place − 0.48 [− 0.85, − 0.11] − 0.24 [− 0.64, 0.16] − 0.07 [− 0.34, 0.20] 0.23 [− 0.17, 0.63] -0.19 [-0.45, 0.06]
Enrolled child eats soil 0.41 [0.02, 0.79] 0.24 [− 0.17, 0.65] 0.30 [0.02, 0.58] 0.32 [− 0.09, 0.74] 0.23 [-0.03, 0.50]
Rainfall (per mm) − 3.26 [− 4.88, − 1.65] − 1.11 [− 2.82, 0.59] − 0.65 [− 1.84, 0.54] 0.47 [− 1.26, 2.20] -1.79 [-2.97, -0.61]
School children (counts) 0.03 [− 0.11, 0.18] − 0.02 [− 0.18, 0.14] − 0.13 [− 0.23, − 0.03] − 0.07 [− 0.23, 0.09] -0.10 [-0.20, -0.01]
Mother’s education level      
 Primary school − 0.74 [− 1.69, 0.21] − 0.58 [− 1.62, 0.46] 0.07 [− 0.59, 0.73] − 0.21 [− 1.26, 0.82] 0.26 [-0.33, 0.86]
 High school − 1.17 [− 2.15, − 0.19] − 0.76 [− 1.84, 0.32] − 0.02 [− 0.71, 0.66] − 0.44 [− 1.51, 0.64] 0.28 [-0.33, 0.89]
 College − 1.78 [− 3.09, − 0.47] − 1.42 [− 2.85, 0.02] − 0.52 [− 1.44, 0.39] − 1.53 [− 2.97, − 0.10] 0.02 [-0.80, 0.84]
Adult age (years) 0.00 [− 0.03, 0.03] 0.02 [− 0.01, 0.05] 0.03 [0.01, 0.05] 0.02 [− 0.01, 0.05] 0.03 [0.01, 0.05]
  1. Only variables with P < 0·2 in the univariable mixed-effects model were included in the multivariable model. Regression estimates for increasing or decreasing antimicrobial load (positive or negative β coefficients, respectively) and 95% confidence intervals with P < 0·05 are shown in bold. Only variables with significant values are shown. See Additional file 5 for complete table
  2. aA protected source prevents contamination of water by the environment e.g. a source covered with a concrete slab or a completely covered tank
  3. bOther than at a toilet facility or the household kitchen