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Table 3 General characteristics of the studies conducted in inpatient settings

From: Antibiotic prescribing in inpatient and outpatient settings in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis study

References Region Setting Sample size Percentage of antibiotics prescribed The most commonly prescribed antibiotic classes (from most to least) The most commonly prescribed antibiotics (from most to least) Unit of analysis
Cheragh Ali et al. [52] Tehran Inpatient (all wards) 3117 prescriptions 39 NM NM Prescriptions
Shayan et al. [53] Jahrom Inpatient (all wards) 4969 prescriptions 56.63 NM NM  
Hajebi et al. [54] Tehran Inpatient (all wards) 2137 hospital records 57 Cephalosporin, Penicillin, Carbapenems, Aminoglycosides NM Patients or hospital records
Tavallaee et al. [55] Tehran Inpatient (ICU) 119 patients 95.5 NM Cefuroxime, Ceftriaxone, clindamycin, Cefazolin, Vancomycin  
Khodabakhshi et al. [56] Golestan Inpatient (all wards) 318 hospital records 69 NM Ceftriaxone, Clindamycin, Cefazolin, Metronidazole, Gentamycin  
Khakshour et al. [57] Bojnurd Inpatient (pediatrics ward) 292 patients 78 NM NM  
Mostafavi et al. [32] Iran (All provinces) Inpatient (pediatrics ward) 1506 patients 62.6 NM NM  
Taghi Zadeh et al. [36] Tabriz Inpatient (ICU ward) 234 hospital records 82 Cephalosporin, Carbapenems, Penicillin, β-lactam, Aminoglycosides Cefazolin, Cefepime, Ceftriaxone, Ceftazidime, Meropenem  
Alavi et al. [58] Ahvaz Inpatient (all wards) 9082 patients 34.34 NM Ceftriaxone, Cloxacillin, Cefazolin, Gentamycin, Amikacin  
Rafati et al. [59] Sari Inpatient (ICU ward) 148 patients 68.2 NM NM  
Abbasi et al. [60] Urmia Inpatient (pediatrics ward) 104 patients 85.6 NM Ceftriaxone, Ceftizoxime  
Reihani et al. [61] Mashhad Inpatient (emergency ward) 540 patients 70.2 Cephalosporin, Macrolides, Carbapenems, Penicillin, Aminoglycosides NM  
Fahimzad et al. [30] Iran (17 hospitals from 15 cities) Inpatient (neonatal and NICU wards) 366 patients 72 NM Ampicillin, Vancomycin, Amikacin, Cefotaxime, Gentamycin,  
Fahimzad et al. [31] Iran (16 Iranian pediatric hospitals) Inpatient (pediatrics ward) 858 patients 67 NM Ceftriaxone, Vancomycin, Cefotaxime, Ceftazidime, Metronidazole  
Sabour et al. [62] Tehran Nursing homes 170 hospital records 13.5 NM NM  
    Median: 366 Median: 68.2 Most prescribed: Cephalosporin, Carbapenems, and Penicillins Most prescribed: Ceftriaxone, Cefazolin, Vancomycin, and Clindamycin  
IQR1: 170 IQR1: 56.63
IQR3: 2137 IQR3: 78
  1. NM not mentioned