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Table 4 General characteristics of the studies conducted in outpatient healthcare settings

From: Antibiotic prescribing in inpatient and outpatient settings in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis study

References Region Sample size/unit of analysis Percentage of antibiotics prescribed The most commonly prescribed antibiotic classes (from most to least) The most commonly prescribed antibiotics (from most to least)
Khaksari et al. (1995 and 2000) [63] Rafsanjan 6895 prescriptions 55.5 NM NM
Mousavi et al. [64] Iran (all provinces) NM (prescription data from all around the country) 45 NM NM
Makouei et al. [65] Urmia 1090 prescriptions 53 Penicillin, Sulfonamides, Cephalosporin, Aminoglycosides, Macrolides Penicillin, Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, Co-amoxiclav, Cloxacillin
Dinarvand et al. [66] Tehran NM (prescriptions in 55 pharmacy) 43 NM NM
Soleymani et al.(1998–2009) [67] Iran (all provinces) 200 million prescriptions 53.1 NM NM
Moghaddam Nia et al. [68] Babol 4000 prescriptions 61.9 NM NM
Arab et al. [69] Khuzestan 986 prescriptions 17.1 NM NM
Cheragh Ali et al. [29] Iran (100 primary care settings from 5 provinces of Tehran, Fars, Khorasan, Khuzestan, Kermanshah) NM (prescriptions in 100 primary care settings) 58 NM Amoxicillin, Procaine Penicillin
Karimi et al. [70] Savojbolagh 1068 prescriptions 56.8 NM Penicillin, Azithromycin, Penicillin 6.3.3, Cefixime, Co-amoxiclav
Sepehri et al. [71] Kerman 45,384 prescriptions 33.95 Penicillin, Cephalosporin, Aminoglycosides NM
Alikhani et al. [72] Yasuj 441 prescriptions 64.6 Penicillin, Macrolides, Cephalosporin, Nalidixic-acid, Sulfonamides, Erythromycin, Amoxicillin, Co-amoxiclav, Penicillin, Cefixime,
Sepehri et al. [73] Bam 3000 prescriptions 11.2 Penicillin, Cephalosporin, Macrolides, Tetracycline, Aminoglycosides Amoxicillin, Penicillin G, Cephalexin, Penicillin 6.3.3, Co-trimoxazole,
Bastani et al. (2003–2013) [74] Iran (all provinces) 59 million prescriptions in each year 53.33 NM NM
Sadeghi et al. [75] Khorasan Jonubi 1,423,642 prescriptions 42 NM Amoxicillin, Cefixime
Ghadimi et al. [76] East Azarbayjan 2041 prescriptions 39.2 NM NM
Sasan et al. [77] Mashhad 1000 infants and children 32.7 NM Penicillin 6.3.3, Co-trimoxazole, Ampicillin, Gentamicin, Amoxicillin
Masoud et al. (2005–2015) [78] Kerman 15,784,313 prescriptions 41.42 NM NM
Dolat Abadi et al. [79] Sabzevar 167,305 prescriptions 45 NM Amoxicillin
Ahmadi et al. [80] Ahvaz 9524 prescriptions 17.7 NM NM
Sepehri et al. [81] Bam 297,104 prescriptions 45.5 Penicillin, Cephalosporin Ciprofloxacin, Metronidazole, Amoxicillin
Zare Shahi et al. [82] Kerman 410,218 prescriptions 40 NM NM
Mosleh et al. [83] Tehran 3420 prescriptions 56.49 NM NM
Sadeghian et al. [84] Isfahan 7,999,530 prescriptions 25.31 Penicillin, Cephalosporin, Macrolides, Quinolones, Sulfonamides NM
Safaeian et al. [85] Isfahan 7,439,709 prescriptions 51 Penicillin, Cephalosporin, Macrolides, Quinolones, Sulfonamides, Cefixime, Amoxicillin, Co-amoxiclav, Penicillin 6.3.3, Azithromycin,
Karimi et al. [28] Iran (all provinces) 85 million prescriptions 45 NM Amoxicillin
Sadigh Rad et al. [86] Urmia 269,660 prescriptions 39.29 NM NM
Amani [87] Ardabil 2000 prescriptions 52.8 NM Penicillin 6.3.3, Ceftriaxone, Penicillin 800,000
Hossein Zadeh et al. [88] Ardabil 2000 prescriptions 54.9 Penicillin, Cephalosporin, Macrolides Cefixime, Azithromycin, Co-amoxiclav, Penicillin 6.3.3, Amoxicillin,
Eftekhari Gol et al. [89] Khorasan Razavi 14,189 prescriptions 50.8 Nm NM
Ahmadi et al. [90] Kermanshah 352,399 prescriptions 52.1 NM NM
Rezazadeh et al. [91] Tehran 1035 prescriptions 49.71 NM NM
Soleymani et al. [92] Tehran 455,549 prescriptions 30.1 NM NM
   Median: 14,189 Median: 45.25 Most prescribed: Penicillin, Cephalosporin, Macrolides, and Aminoglycosides Most prescribed: Amoxicillin, Penicillin, Co-amoxiclav, and Cefixime
IQR1: 2000 IQR1: 39.2
IQR3: 939,595 IQR3: 53.33