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Table 3 Association between exposures and vaginal colonization with important antibiotic-resistant bacteria among study women in labor

From: Vaginal colonization with antimicrobial-resistant bacteria among women in labor in central Uganda: prevalence and associated factors

Participant characteristic No. of women (%), N = 1472 Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) of being colonized with bacteria
ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceace MRSA MDR
Mother's age
 20–24 years 587 (39.9) 1 1 1
 <  = 19 years 205 (13.9) 0.69 (0.26, 1.79) 1.26 (0.59, 2.68) 1.16 (0.82, 1.63)
 25–29 years 454 (30.8) 1.32 (0.69, 2.54) 1.68 (0.93, 3.02) 1.27 (0.98, 1.65)
 >  = 30 years 226 (15.4) 0.91 (0.34, 2.43) 3.03 (1.51, 6.07) 1.56 (1.09, 2.24)
Education level
 Tertiary 130 (8.8) 1 1 1
 Primary 488 (33.2) 1.15 (0.39, 3.33) 1.91 (0.74, 4.93) 1.31 (0.86, 1.98)
 Secondary 854 (58.0) 1.08 (0.40, 2.89) 1.44 (0.58, 3.53) 1.42 (0.96, 2.09)
Wealth index
 Quintile5 290 (19.7) 1 1 1
 Quintile1 489 (33.2) 0.82 (0.36, 1.85) 1.09. (0.54, 2.20) 0.82 (0.59, 1.13)
 Quintile2 100 (6.8) 0.42 (0.09, 1.97) 0.85 (0.29, 2.51) 0.85 (0.53, 1.38)
 Quintile3 298 (20.2) 0.86 (0.36, 2.09) 1.07 (0.50, 2.31) 0.86 (0.60, 1.23)
 Quintile4 295 (20.0) 1.06 (0.45, 2.49) 0.97 (0.45, 2.06) 0.86 (0.61, 1.22)
Gravidity
 Primigravida 442 (30.0) 1 1 1
 2–4 pregnancies 910 (61.8) 0.73 (0.37, 1.44) 0.84 (0.46, 1.55) 0.95 (0.73, 1.25)
 5 or more pregnancies 120 (8.2) 0.68 (0.18, 2.59) 0.39 (0.13, 1.19) 0.62 (0.37, 1.02)
Hospitalization during pregnancy
 No 1387 (94.2) 1 1 1
 Yes 710 (94.5) 1.35 (0.47, 3.33) 1.32 (0.55, 3.17) 0.99 (0.64, 1.55)
Antenatal visits
 Once 75 (5.1) 1 1 1
 2–4 times 1259 (85.5) 0.53 (0.20, 1.41)- 0.78 (0.30, 2.02) 1.15 (0.71, 1.85)
 5 or more times 138 (9.4) 0.28 (0.06, 1.26)- 1.29 (0.42, 3.95) 1.12 (0.63, 1.99)
Own domestic animals
 No 1355 (92.1) 1 1 1
 Yes 117 (8.0) 0.16 (0.02, 1.27) 0. 89 (0.34, 2.35) 0. 77 (0.50, 1.20)
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