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Table 1 Antimicrobial use in inpatients from 2015 to 2019

From: Effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on antimicrobial prevalence and prescribing in a tertiary hospital in Singapore

Year 2015 2017 2018 2019 2020 P
No. of available beds (No. of surveyed wards) 1135 (35) 1345 (40) 1359 (44) 1375 (46) 1357 (50)
No. of patients admitted 1018 1150 1173 1214 1182 NA
No. of patients on antimicrobials 558 (55%) 519 (45%) 592 (50%) 589 (49%) 558 (47%) 0.02
No. of patients on antibacterials for systemic use (J01) 550 (54%) 504 (44%) 562 (48%) 550 (45%) 501 (42%)  < 0.01
Age, median years (range) 73 (16–99) 69 (17–100) 71 (17–100) 72 (15–99) 71 (16–101)
Male 290 (53%) 281 (54%) 340 (57%) 345 (59%) 330 (59%)
Medical patients 704 (69%) 802 (70%) 849 (72%) 914 (75%) 912 (77%)  < 0.01
Surgical patients 278 (27%) 297 (26%) 290 (25%) 273 (22%) 226 (19%)  < 0.01
Intensive care patients 36 (4%) 51 (4%) 34 (3%) 27 (2%) 44 (4%) 0.27
No. of antimicrobials 768 755 839 821 780
Antibacterials for systemic use (J01) 727 (95%) 647 (86%) 692 (82%) 665 (81%) 615 (79%)
Antimalarials (P01BA) 0 2 (0.2%) 0 10 (1%) 4 (0.5%)
Antimycobacterials (J04) 21 (3%) 51 (7%) 50 (6%) 44 (5%) 52 (7%)
Antimycotics for systemic use (J02) 11 (1%) 19 (3%) 13 (2%) 18 (2%) 20 (3%)
Antivirals for systemic use (J05) 8 (1%) 26 (3%) 80 (10%)* 70 (9%) 83 (11%)
Intestinal anti-infectives (A07A) 1 (< 1%) 10 (1%) 4 (< 1%) 14 (2%) 6 (< 1%)
  1. P = test for trends in proportions and test for differences in median using the Kruskal–Wallis test as appropriate
  2. *Introduction of the surveillance of the complete list of antivirals for systemic use (J05) as opposed to surveillance of neuraminidase inhibitors (J05AH) alone in 2015 and 2017