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Table 3 Indications of antimicrobials use and top 10 reasons to treat inpatients with at least one antibiotic for systemic use (J01), year 2015–2020

From: Effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on antimicrobial prevalence and prescribing in a tertiary hospital in Singapore

Year 2015 2017 2018 2019 2020
  No. of antimicrobials
Type of indication 768 755 839 821 780
Community acquired infections 482 (63%) 353 (47%) 500 (60%) 487 (59%) 444 (57%)
Healthcare associated infection 227 (30%) 295 (39%) 245 (29%) 212 (26%) 247 (32%)
Medical prophylaxis 8 (1%) 30 (4%) 37 (4%) 35 (4%) 42 (5%)
Surgical prophylaxis 36 (5%) 34 (5%) 26 (3%) 26 (3%) 27 (4%)
Unknown indication 13 (2%) 39 (5%) 23 (3%) 28 (3%) 13 (2%)
Others (e.g. use as prokinetic) 2 (< 1%) 4 (1%) 8 (1%) 33 (4%) 7 (1%)
  No. of patients
Top 10 diagnosis 550 504 562 550 501
Pneumonia or lower respiratory tract infection 184 (34%) 142 (29%) 144 (26%) 150 (27%) 144 (29%)
Skin and soft tissue infections† 81 (15%) 54 (11%) 61 (11%) 75 (14%) 66 (13%)
Intra-abdominal infections 54 (10%) 47 (9%) 55 (10%) 49 (9%) 44 (9%)
Upper urinary tract infections§ 28 (5%) 14 (3%) 61 (11%) 48 (9%) 65 (13%)
Lower urinary tract infections (cystitis) 44 (8%) 58 (12%) 44 (8%) 36 (7%) 20 (4%)
Gastrointestinal infections 16 (3%) 23 (5%) 21 (4%) 24 (4%) 21 (4%)
Unknown 8 (2%) 36 (7%) 26 (5%) 21 (4%) 10 (2%)
Bone and joint infections** 12 (2%) 14 (3%) 19 (3%) 22 (4%) 17 (3%)
Acute Bronchitis or exacerbations of chronic bronchitis 10 (2%) 15 (3%) 17 (3%) 17 (3%) 6 (1%)
Sepsis†† 19 (4%) 23 (5%) 12 (2%) 15 (3%) 8 (2%)
  1. Patients recorded with more than one diagnosis were counted by number of diagnoses
  2. Patients not treated with antibiotics for systemic use, but who were treated with other antimicrobials (e.g., antimalarials) were not included
  3. Includes cellulitis, wound infections (including surgical site infections), deep soft tissue infections not involving bone (e.g., infected pressure or diabetic ulcers, abscesses). ‡Includes intra-abdominal sepsis and hepatobiliary and intra-abdominal abscesses. §Includes catheter-related urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis
  4. **Includes septic arthritis (including prosthetic joints) and osteomyelitis
  5. ††Includes sepsis syndrome or septic shock with no clear anatomical site