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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients colonized with CRAB and matched controls

From: Risk factors for nosocomial rectal colonization with carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in hospital: a matched case–control study

Variables Controls Cases Total P value
N = 90 (66.6%) N = 45 (33.4%) N = 135
N % N % N %
Age (years), Mean ± SD (range) 76 ± 15 (18–94)   75 ± 16 (18–95)   75.7 ± 16 (18–95)   0.769
Male, sex 59 65.6 26 57.8 85 63 0.378
LOS, mean ± SD (range) 26.8 ± 23.3 (3–127)   48.7 ± 34.0 (7–159)   34.1 ± 29.1 (3–159)   < 0.001
ICU stay 18 20 20 44.4 38 28.1 0.003
aDeaths 1 2.9 5 29.4 6 11.8 0.006
Provenance of patient at admission        
Home 83 92.2 36 80.0 119 88.2 0.003
LTHCF 1 1.1 7 15.6 8 5.9  
Other hospital 6 6.7 2 4.4 8 5.9  
bRecent hospitalization 6 6.7 8 17.8 14 10.4 0.046
Charlson Comorbidity Index, Mean ± SD (range) 5.9 ± 2.5 (0–12) 6.9 ± 2.7 (0–12) 6.3 ± 2.6(0–12) 0.050    
McCabe score        
Nonfatal disease 54 60.0 20 44.4 74 54.8 0.019
Fatal disease (within 5 years) 36 40.0 22 48.9 58 43.0  
Rapidly fatal disease (within 6 months) 0 0.0 3 6.7 3 2.2  
Major surgery ≤ 30 days before hospitalization 3 3.3 2 4.4 5 3.7 0.747
Major surgery during hospitalization 20 22.2 15 33.3 35 25.9 0.165
Diagnosis at hospital admission        
Infection 54 60.0 32 71.1 86 63.7 0.115
Polytrauma 17 18.9 2 4.4 19 14.1  
Cardiovascular disease 15 16.7 10 22.2 25 18.5  
Cancer 4 4.4 1 2.2 5 3.7  
Presence of intrinsic risk factors and comorbidities        
Chronic heart failure 48 53.3 28 62.2 76 56.3 0.326
Hypertension 57 63.3 29 64.4 86 63.7 0.899
Peripheral vascular disease 22 24.4 20 44.4 42 31.1 0.018
Stroke or TIA 27 30.0 18 40.0 45 33.3 0.245
Dementia 22 24.4 18 40.0 40 29.6 0.062
COPD 16 17.8 10 22.2 26 19.3 0.537
Chronic hepatitis 8 8.9 3 6.7 11 8.1 0.656
Gastrointestinal disease 36 40.0 12 26.7 48 35.6 0.127
Solid neoplasia & haematological neoplasia 28 31.1 15 33.3 43 31.8 0.693
CKD 33 36.7 13 28.9 46 34.1 0.369
Diabetes mellitus 22 24.4 15 33.3 37 27.4 0.275
Disability   0.0   0.0   0  
No disability 68 75.6 22 48.9 90 66.7 0.003
Partial 15 16.7 11 24.4 26 19.3  
Bedridden 7 7.8 12 26.7 19 14.1  
Permanent devices 6 6.7 11 24.4 17 12.6 0.003
Presence of extrinsic risk factors        
Central vascular catheterization 7 7.8 21 46.7 28 20.7 < 0.001
PICC or midline 6 6.7 11 24.4 17 12.6 0.003
Urinary catheter 38 42.2 37 82.2 75 55.6 < 0.001
Naso-gastric tube 8 8.9 13 28.9 21 15.6 0.003
PEG 1 1.1 5 11.1 6 4.4 0.008
Tracheostomy 3 3.3 12 26.7 15 11.1 < 0.001
Mechanical ventilation 7 7.8 10 22.2 17 12.6 0.017
Dialysis 3 3.3 3 6.7 6 4.4 0.376
Blood transfusion 24 26.7 11 24.4 35 25.9 0.781
Antibiotics ≤ 30 days before hospitalization 9 10.0 9 20.0 18 13.3 0.113
Chemotherapy 3 3.3 6 13.3 9 6.7 0.028
Corticosteroid therapy 15 16.7 16 35.6 31 23 0.014
cAntibiotics during hospitalization 65 72.2 43 95.6 108 80 0.001
3GC 26 28.9 20 44.4 46 34.1 0.087
Carbapenems 5 5.6 13 28.9 18 13.3 < 0.001
Penicillins 47 52.2 31 68.9 78 57.8 0.086
Fluoroquinolones 13 14.4 12 26.7 25 18.5 0.097
Glycopeptides 11 12.2 15 33.3 26 19.3 0.004
dPolytherapy 22 24.4 26 57.8 48 35.6 < 0.001
Number of antibiotics used in the hospitalization, mean ± SD (range) 1.53 ± 1.44 (0–5)   3.64 ± 2.69 (0–13)   2.24 ± 2.19 (0–13)   < 0.001
  1. SD, standard deviation; LOS, Length of hospital stay; ICU, Intensive care unit; LTHCF, Long-term health care facility; TIA, transient ischemic attack; COPD, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CKD, chronic kidney disease; PICC, Peripherally inserted central catheter; PEG, Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy; NIV, Noninvasive ventilation
  2. aThe number of deaths was defined as all-cause mortality within 90 days of hospital admission
  3. bPrevious hospitalization within 6 months
  4. cAntibiotic exposures spanned from hospital admission to development of CRAB colonization
  5. dTherapy with 2 or more concurrent antibiotic classes before developing CRAB colonization