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Table 1 Sociodemographic and clinical features of infants at enrollment and reassessment

From: Colonization with multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae among infants: an observational study in southern Sri Lanka

  Infant at admission Infant at follow-up
All (n = 199) MDRE + (n = 3) MDRE– (n = 196) p value All (n = 151) MDRE + (n = 24) MDRE– (n = 127) p value
General details
 Mother’s age (year) 29 (25–33) 32 (20–34) 29 (25–33) 0.749 29 (26–33) 30 (25–34) 29 (26–33) 0.129
 Infant’s gender (female) 95 (47.7) 2 (66.7) 93 (47.5) 0.614 71 (47.0) 10 (41.7) 61 (48.0) 0.365
 Low birth weight (< 2.5 kg) 19 (9.6) 0 (0) 19 (9.69) 1.000 16 (10.6) 6 (25) 10 (7.9) 0.023
 Breastfed 198 (99.5) 3 (100) 195 (99.5) 0.985 151 (100) 24 (100) 127 (100) 1.000
Average monthly household incomea 0.124     0.657    
 < 15,000 Rs 10 (5.0) 0 (0) 10 (5.1)   9 (6.0) 0 (0) 9 (7.1)  
 15,001–30,000 Rs 77 (38.7) 1 (33.3) 76 (38.8)   58 (38.4) 11 (45.8) 47 (37.0)  
 30,001–45,000 Rs 82 (41.2) 0 (0) 82 (41.8)   62 (41.1) 10 (41.7) 52 (41.0)  
 > 45,000 Rs 30 (15.1) 2 (66.7) 28 (14.3)   22 (14.6) 3 (12.5) 19 (15.0)  
Mother’s hospital-associated risk factors (within 6 months prior to delivery)
 Hospitalization 37 (18.6) 0 (0) 37 (18.9) 0.538 26 (17.2) 2 (8.33) 24 (18.9) 0.169
 History of infection 9 (4.5) 0 (0) 9 (4.6) 0.870 9 (6.0) 1 (4.2) 8 (6.3) 0.566
 Antibiotic intake 6 (3.0) 1 (33.3) 5 (2.6) 0.088 6 (4.0) 1 (4.2) 5 (3.9) 0.653
Household-associated risk factors (within 6 months prior to delivery)
 Number of adults at home 2 (1–3) 3 (1–4) 2 (1–3) 0.95 2 (1–3) 2 (1.5–3) 2 (1–3) 0.266
 Number of children at home 1 (1–2) 1 (1–1) 1 (1–2) 0.64 1 (1–2) 1 (0–2) 1 (1–2) 0.214
Complications during pregnancy
 Any complications 22 (11.1) 0 (0) 22 (11.2) 0.702 20 (13.3) 5 (20.8) 15 (11.8) 0.189
 Premature rupture of membranes 5 (2.51) 0 (0) 5 (2.6) 0.926 5 (3.3) 2 (8.3) 3 (2.4) 0.179
 Gestational diabetes 6 (3.02) 0 (0) 6 (3.1) 0.912 6 (4.0) 2 (8.3) 4 (3.2) 0.243
 Labor induced 13 (6.5) 0 (0) 13 (6.6) 1.000 11 (7.3) 1 (4.2) 10 (7.9) 1.000
Mode of delivery     0.559     0.021
 C-section 64 (32.2) 0 (0) 64 (32.7)   51 (33.6) 13 (54.2) 38 (29.9)  
 Vaginal 134 (67.3) 3 (100) 131 (66.8)   100 (66.2) 11 (45.8) 89 (70.1)  
Difficulties with delivery     0.592     0.133
 No 62 (31.2) 0 (0) 62 (31.6)   49 (32.5) 13 (54.2) 36 (28.4)  
 Episiotomy 131 (65.8) 3 (100) 128 (65.3)   97 (64.2) 11 (45.8) 86 (67.7)  
Hospitalization/discharge details
 NICU admission      3 (2.0) 1 (4.2) 2 (1.6) 0.407
 Antibiotic started in hospital      3 (2.0) 1 (4.2) 2 (1.6) 0.407
 Hospital stay—Infant (days)      1 (1–2) 2 (1–3) 1 (1–2) 0.060
Infant reassessment
 Admitted to hospital again      7 (4.6) 1 (4.2) 6 (4.7) 0.692
 In-patient antibiotic use      4 (2.7) 0 (0) 4 (3.2) 1.000
 Out-patient antibiotic use      21 (13.9) 6 (25) 15 (11.81) 0.087
Housing details
 Refrigerator      102 (67.6) 15 (62.5) 87 (68.5) 0.361
 Running water      140 (92.7) 22 (91.7) 118 (92.9) 0.549
 Toilet type         0.199
 Outdoor squat toilet—private      116 (76.8) 23 (95.8) 93 (73.2)  
 Outdoor squat toilet—public      32 (21.2) 1 (4.2) 31 (24.4)  
 Private toilet/commode      2 (1.3) 0 (0) 2 (1.6)  
 Pets at home      83 (55.0) 15 (62.5) 68 (53.5) 0.653
Household water treatment methods        0.204  
 Boiled      67 (44.4) 9 (37.5) 58 (45.7)  
 Filtered      21 (13.9) 5 (20.8) 16 (12.6)  
 None      68 (45.0) 9 (37.5) 59 (46.5)  
Colonization
 Mother at enrollment 24 (12.1) 2 (66.7) 22 (11.2) 0.054 19 (12.6) 7 (29.2) 12 (9.5) 0.026
 Mother at reassessment      26 (17.2) 9 (37.5) 17 (13.4) 0.012
 Infant at enrollment      3 (2.0) 2 (8.3) 1 (0.8) 0.051
  1. Risk factors associated with intestinal colonization with multidrug resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MDRE) on bivariable analysis are shown
  2. Values are reported as frequency (%) or median (interquartile range). See Additional File 1: Table S1 for equivalent information regarding mothers
  3. a< 15,000 Rs ≤ 89 USD; 15,001–30,000 Rs = 89–177 USD; 30,001–45,000 Rs = 177–266; > 45,000 Rs ≥ 266 USD