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Table 1 Characteristics of the patients admitted to the main Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of Umberto I teaching hospital of Rome between 1st March and 4th April 2019 and 1st March and 4th April 2020. Results are expressed as number (percentage), median (interquartile range) or mean (standard deviation)

From: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on healthcare-associated infections in intensive care unit patients: a retrospective cohort study

  2019 cohort 2020 cohort
Patients 42 62
Observation time, person-days 1130 1000
Gender (male) 24 (57.1) 41 (66.1)
Age, years 64.5 (52–76) 70 (61–79)
Admission to the ICU   
 Other ward 11 (26.2) 31 (50.0)
 Other hospital 2 (4.8) 5 (8.1)
 Emergency Department 29 (69.0) 26 (41.9)
Coexisting conditions   
 Hypertension 22 (52.4) 27 (43.6)
 Diabetes mellitus 10 (23.8) 10 (16.1)
 Asthma 1 (2.4) 4 (6.5)
 Coronary heart disease 2 (4.8) 11 (17.7)
 Chronic kidney disease 3 (7.1) 5 (8.1)
 Chronic liver disease 2 (4.6) 0 (0.0)
 Active cancer 4 (9.5) 7 (11.3)
 Immunodeficiency 5 (11.9) 1 (1.6)
ICU deaths 10 (23.8) 35 (56.5)
Mortality rate (95% CI) per 1000 patient-days 8.8 (4.8–15.0) 35.0 (25.8–46.4)
Length of ICU stay, days 14.5 (7–36) 13 (6–21)
Central venous catheter, days 15.5 (7–33.5) 14 (6–23)
Urinary catheter, days 14.5 (7–35) 13 (6.5–22)
Invasive ventilation, days 13 (4–35) 8 (5–19)
Patients with invasive ventilation 38 (90.5) 53 (85.5)
Patients with at least one HAI 11 (26.2) 27 (43.6)
Patients with at least one dr-HAI 2 (4.8) 20 (32.3)
HAI per patient 0.33 (0.61) 0.73 (0.93)
dr-HAI per patient 0.05 (0.22) 0.44 (0.69)
HAI per infected patient 1.27 (0.48) 1.67 (0.62)
dr-HAI per infected patient 1.0 (0.0) 1.35 (0.49)
Antibiotic consumption before the first HAI   
 Carbapenems 40 (95.2) 51 (82.3)
 Extended spectrum cephalosporins 15 (35.7) 6 (9.7)
 Glycopeptides 14 (33.3) 29 (46.8)
 Macrolides 3 (7.1) 15 (24.2)
 Penicillins + beta lactamase inhibitors 21 (50.0) 31 (50.0)
  1. ICU: Intensive Care Unit. HAI: Healthcare-Associated Infection. dr-HAI: device-related Healthcare-Associated Infection. CI: Confidence Interval