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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of ICU patients with and without the occurrence of KDIGO 3 acute kidney injurya

From: Comparison of colistin-induced nephrotoxicity between two different formulations of colistin in critically ill patients: a retrospective cohort study

   ≥ KDIGO 3 AKI P-value
Yes, n = 41 No, n = 154
Age, years (SD) 71.4 (12.2) 74.4 (13.8) 0.138
Sex 0.421
Male 26 (63.4%) 112 (72.7%)  
Female 15 (36.6%) 42 (27.3%)  
BMI (SD) 22.2 (5.6) 22.3 (4.3) 0.788
Smoking 15 (36.6%) 63 (40.9%) 0.363
Comorbidities  
Diabetes 12 (29.5%) 45 (29.2%) 0.958
Malignancies 10 (24.4%) 23 (14.9%) 0.243
Renal insufficiency 6 (14.6%) 15 (9.7%) 0.211
Chronic liver diseases 3 (7.3%) 13 (8.4%) 1.000
Heart failure 3 (7.8%) 14 (9.1%) 0.767
CR-GNB culture sources 0.035
Respiratory specimens 39 (95.1%) 118 (76.6%)  
Urine 0 10 (6.5%)  
Blood 2 (4.9%) 9 (5.8%)  
Othersb 0 17 (11.0%)  
CR-GNB species 0.229
CRAB 34 (82.9) 107 (69.5%)  
CRE 6 (14.6%) 39 (25.3%)  
CRPA 1 (2.4%) 8 (5.2%)  
Laboratory results (Mean, SD)  
Leukocytes (× 109 per L) 11.5 (9.9) 13.7 (8.8) 0.183
CRP (mg/dL) 10.5 (10.0) 9.8 (5.6) 0.555
Albumin level 2.8 (2.5–3.1) 2.7 (2.4–3.0) 0.217
Concomitant nephrotoxins  
Aminoglycoside 5 (12.2%) 17 (11.0%) 0.835
Vancomycin 8 (19.5%) 12 (7.8%) 0.028
Intravenous contrast agent 9 (22%) 30 (19.5%) 0.725
Disease severities  
APACHEII scores (median, IQ R)c 23 (18–31) 25 (20–30) 0.454
Respiratory failured 40 (97.6%) 135 (87.7%) 0.081
Septic shockd 22 (53.7) 39 (25.3%) 0.001
Colistin treatment  
Daily dose (MIU) (median, IQR) 8 (7.4–10) 8 (4–10) 0.036
Treatment duration (days) (median, IQR) 7 (4–11) 7 (4–12) 0.403
Accumulated dose (MIU) (median, IQR) 46.5 (30.5–87.2) 48 (24–80) 0.594
Inappropriate colistin dose 9 (22.0%) 14 (9.1%) 0.023
  1. APACHE II Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, BMI body mass index, ICU intensive care unit, IQR interquartile range, CCr creatinine clearance, CR-GNB carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria, SD standard deviation
  2. aData are presented as n (%)
  3. bIncluding abscess, ascites, CSF, and pericardial effusion
  4. cEvaluated on the day of ICU admission
  5. dPresent on the day of sample collection