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Table 1 Crude group comparison of orthopedic surgeries before, during and after the lockdown

From: Impact of a total lockdown for pandemic SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) on deep surgical site infections and other complications after orthopedic surgery: a retrospective analysis

  Pre-lockdown Lockdown Post-lockdown p valuesa
n = 5791 n = 2688 n = 230 n = 2873  
Patients
Female sex 1311 (49%) 106 (46%) 1396 (49%) 0.74
Median age 53 years (18) 54 years (17) 53 years (18) 0.51
Diabetes mellitus 213 (8%) 27 (12%) 281 (10%) 0.02
Median body mass index 27.0 kg/m2 (5.3) 26.8 kg/m2 (6.0) 27.0 kg/m2 (5.3) 0.36
ASA-Score of 4 points 25 (1%) 5 (2%) 83 (3%) 0.01
Types of orthopedic surgery     0.01
Knee 526 (20%) 37 (16%) 541 (19%)  
Foot and Ankle 523 (20%) 24 (10%) 571 (20%)  
Spine 490 (18%) 56 (24%) 523 (18%)  
Shoulder and Elbow 385 (14%) 39 (17%) 402 (14%)  
Primary surgery 1250 (47%) 108 (47%) 1352 (47%) 0.66
Median duration of surgery 86 min (52) 89 min (53) 85 min (53) 0.33
Median duration of hospital stay 4.2 days (5.4) 4.5 days (7.3) 4.3 days (6.1) 0.17
Postoperative outcomes
Revision for deep surgical site infection 26 (1%) 4 (2%) 13 (0.5%) 0.02
Revision for wound healing disorders 19 (0.7%) 1 (0.4%) 19 (0.7%) 0.88
Revision for non-infectious complication 138 (5%) 8 (3%) 79 (3%) 0.01
Key non-SSI nosocomial infections
Bacterial pneumonia 9 (0.3%) 1 (0.4%) 13 (0.5%) 0.78
Urinary tract infections 7 (0.3%) 7 (3%) 13 (0.5%) 0.01
Secondary bloodstream infections 3 (0.1%) 1 (0.4%) 4 (0.1%) 0.44
  1. Percentages respectively standard deviations are given in brackets
  2. Significant results (p < 0.05) are indicated in bold and italic
  3. aKruskal–Wallis-tests