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Table 3 Literature review of deep surgical site infections (SSI), other healthcare-associated infections (HAI) and hand hygiene performances during the first lockdown for pandemic Covid-19 (limited to publications with own observed data)

From: Impact of a total lockdown for pandemic SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) on deep surgical site infections and other complications after orthopedic surgery: a retrospective analysis

Journal First author Before lockdown During lockdown Remarks
Reduced SSI or HAI
Asian Annals Hussain et al. [15] 2.9% 0.8% Sternal wound SSI after cardiac surgery
Updates Surg Losurdo et al. [14] 3.4% 0.8% General surgery in Trieste, Italy
J Neurol Sci Cerulli Irelli et al. [26] 31.5% 23.3% All HAI together in Stroke Units in Italy
Am J Infect Control Wee et al. [17] Baseline 100% 24% Reduced catheter-related bacteremias
Am J Infect Control Bentivegna et al. [28] Baseline 100% 50–71% Reduction of Clostridium difficile
Infect Control Hospital Epid Ponce-Alonso et al. [27] Baseline 100% 30% Reduction of Clostridium difficile
Stable SSI or HAI
Int J Infect Dis Lo et al. [16] Baseline Baseline All HAI together. Not quantified
J Orthop Surg Res Zeng et al. [18] 1.0% 1.0% SSI orthopaedic surgery in Shenzen, China
Increased HAI
Am J Infect Control McMullen et al. [19] Baseline 100% 157–279% Increase in urinary tract infections
Am J Infect Control McMullen et al. [19] Baseline 100% 327–420% Catheter-related bloodstream infections
Hand hygiene compliances
Am J Infect Control Moore et al. [25] 46% compliance 56% compliance No data on HAI or SSI; 19 hospitals in USA
Clin Microbiol Infect Israel et al. [6] 46% compliance 80% compliance No data on HAI or SSI; Covid-Units in Jerusalem
J Primary Care Comm Health Roshan et al. [7] unreported baseline 80–95% No data on HAI or SSI. Mention of their reduction
Am J Infect Control Wee et al. [17] 85% 100% Reduction of selected HAI and of MRSA transmission