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Table 2 Incidence rate, hazard ratios, 95% CI and significance tests for various types of nosocomial infections by COVID-19 status

From: Nosocomial infections among COVID-19 patients: an analysis of intensive care unit surveillance data

  COVID-19 patients (n = 71) Non-COVID-19 patients (n = 487) P value
Nosocomial infection
Total ICU-days 727 1847
Episodes of nosocomial infection 10a 13b
Incidence of nosocomial infection per 1000 ICU-days (95% CI) 13.76 (7.40–25.56) 7.04 (4.09–12.12)
Hazard ratio 1.95 (0.86–4.46) 1 0.105
Adjusted hazard ratioc 1.59 (0.60–4.21) 0.353
CAUTI
Indwelling urinary catheter 42 (59.15) 354 (72.69) 0.019
Duration of indwelling catheter, Median days (IQR)d 6.5 (4–14) 2 (2–4) < 0.001
Total Catheter-days 555 1443
Episodes of CAUTI 4 1
Incidence of CAUTI per 1000 catheter-days (95% CI) 7.21 (2.70–19.20) 0.69 (0.10–4.92)
Hazard ratio (95% CI) 10.40 (1.16–93.05) 1 0.009
CLABSI
Number of patients on central line 27 (38.03) 191 (39.22) 0.848
Duration of central line, Median Days (IQR)d 9 (6–23) 3 (2–7) < 0.001
Total Central line-days 418 1050
Episodes of CLABSI 0 2
Incidence of CLABSI per 1000 central line-days (95% CI) 0 1.90 (0.48–7.62)
Hazard ratio (95% CI)
PVAP
Invasive mechanical ventilation 27 (38.03) 222 (45.59) 0.231
Duration of mechanical ventilation, median days (IQR)d 8 (5–26) 3 (1–5) < 0.001
Total Ventilator-days 471 1150
Episodes of PVAP 1 2
Incidence of PVAP per 1000 ventilator-days (95% CI) 2.12 (0.30–15.07) 1.74 (0.43–6.95)
Hazard Ratio (95% CI) 1.22 (0.11–13.46) 1 0.87
Secondary bloodstream infection (BSI)
ICU-days 727 1847
Episodes of BSI 5 8
Incidence of BSI per 1000 ICU-days (95% CI) 6.88 (2.86–16.52) 4.33 (2.17–8.66)
Hazard Ratio (95% CI) 1.59 (0.52–4.85) 1 0.413
  1. aFrom the 10 nosocomial infections, a total of 11 organisms were detected. There were 2 (18.2%) Klebsiella pneumoniae, 2 (18.2%) Escherichia coli, 1 (9.1%) Enterobacter cloacae, 2 (18.2%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 1 (9.1%) Pseudomonas species, 1 (9.1%) Enterococcus faecium, 1 (9.1%) coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, and 1 (9.1%) Candida species detected. All enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenters organisms were sensitive to carbapenem
  2. bFrom the 13 nosocomial infections, a total of 17 organisms were detected. There were 4 (23.5%) Staphylococcus aureus, 3 (17.7%) Klebsiella pneumoniae, 1 (5.9%) Escherichia coli, 1 (5.9%) Enterobacter aerogenes, 1 (5.9%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 1 (5.9%) Enterococcus faecium, and 6 (35.3%) Candida species detected. All enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenters organisms were sensitive to carbapenem. Of the 4 Staphylococcus Aureus, 1 was methicillin-resistant
  3. cAdjusted for age, gender, comorbidity as a whole, length of stay in ICU, presence of IDC, presence of invasive ventilation, and presence of central line
  4. dRank sum test and only patients with invasive procedures done were included