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Table 5 Associations between antibiotic resistance and consumption of ASF

From: Animal source food eating habits of outpatients with antimicrobial resistance in Bukavu, D.R. Congo

ASF Consumption level n (%) Univariable Multivariable
O.R. (95% C.I.) P value O.R. (95% C.I.) value
Ciprofloxacin
Beef Low 132 (62.0) 0.875 (0.381 – 2.011) 0.753 0.737 (0.542–1.002) 0.051
  High 67 (31.5) Reference   Reference  
Chicken Low 172 (80.8) 1.689 (0.505 – 5.645) 0.395 1.414 (0.965 – 2.071) 0.076
  High 26 (12.2) Reference   Reference  
Goat meat Low 126 (59.2) 0.800 (0.304 – 2.106) 0.651 0.996 (0.716 – 1.385) 0.981
  High 40 (18.8) Reference   Reference  
Pork Low 55 (25.8) 0.378 (0.128 – 1.112) 0.077 0.743 (0.560 – 0.985) 0.039
  High 76 (35.7) Reference   Reference  
Milk Low 70 (32.9) 1.412 (0.528 – 3.774) 0.492 0.915 (0.680 – 1.230) 0.556
  High 135 (63.4) Reference   Reference  
Gentamicin
Beef Low 19 (46.3) 0.921 (0.333 – 2.545) 0.874 0.839 (0.597 – 1.179) 0.311
  High 22 (53.7) Reference   Reference  
Chicken Low 35 (85.4) 3.214 (0.626 – 16.506) 0.162 1.176 (0.757 – 1.827) 0.470
  High 6 (14.6) Reference   Reference  
Goat meat Low 32 (78.0) 0.914 (0.236 – 3.539) 0.897 0.849 (0.569 – 1.266) 0.422
  High 9 (22.0) Reference   Reference  
Pork Low 21 (51.2) 1.705 (0.507 – 5.729) 0.389 0.954 (0.677 – 1.343) 0.787
  High 20 (48.8) Reference   Reference  
Milk Low 13 (31.7) 0.234 (0.059 – 0.924) 0.038 0.717 (0.499 – 1.030) 0.072
  High 28 (68.3) Reference   Reference  
Levofloxacin
Beef Low 16 (50) 1.005 (0.355 – 2.843) 0.993 0.690 (0.533 – 0.893) 0.005
  High 16 (50) Reference   Reference  
Chicken Low 28 (87.5) 1.062 (0.286 – 3.945) 0.929 1.965 (1.370– 2.820) 0.0001
  High 4 (12.5) Reference   Reference  
Goat meat Low 25 (78.1) 2.133 (0.483 – 9.379) 0.316 1.293 (0.950 – 1.758) 0.102
  High 7 (21.9) Reference   Reference  
Pork Low 15 (46.9) 0.185 (0.033 – 1.020) 0.053 0.828 (0.648 – 1.058) 0.132
  High 17 (53.1) Reference   Reference  
Milk Low 10 (31.3) 3.294 (0.962 – 11.282) 0.058 1.257 (0.951 – 1.660) 0.108
  High 22 (68.8) Reference   Reference  
Ceftriaxone – cefotaxime
Beef Low 18 (51.4) 1.905 (0.553 – 6.555) 0.307 1.190 (0.934 – 1.516) 0.160
  High 17 (48.6) Reference   Reference  
Chicken Low 33 (94.3) 2.059 (0.220 – 19.251) 0.527 0.899 (0.536 – 1.507) 0.685
  High 2 (5.7) Reference   Reference  
Goat meat Low 24 (68.6) 0.149 (0.033 – 0.667) 0.013 0.618 (0.471 – 0.812) 0.001
  High 11 (31.4) Reference   Reference  
Pork Low 16 (45.7) 0.265 (0.046 – 1.517) 0.136 0.808 (0.631 – 1.034) 0.091
  High 19 (54.3) Reference   Reference  
Milk Low 6 (17.1) 0.897 (0.160 – 5.023) 0.902 1.009 (0.726 – 1.401) 0.958
  High 29 (82.9) Reference   Reference  
  1. Reference: 1; OR: Odds Ratio; CI: Confidence Interval; Bold text is for statistical significance; P-value based on 0.05 Significance level