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Table 2 Number of actions and time used for clinical best practices

From: A pre-pandemic COVID-19 assessment of the costs of prevention and control interventions for healthcare associated infections in medical and surgical wards in Québec

Clinical best practice Actions   Median time (seconds) Percentiles Mean time (seconds) S.D. (seconds) Minimum Time (seconds) Maximum time (seconds) Kruskal Wallis
  N %   2.5 97.5      X2 df P
Hand hygiene 867 100 14.3 4.0 35.7 15.6 8.3 1.4 109.9    
Healthcare personnel
 Nurse: bachelor trained 21 2.4 14.9 11.0 27.9 16.9 5.1 11.0 27.9 21.27 4 0.000
 Nurse: college trained 125 14.4 16.0 4.2 40.0 17.8 11.5 2.5 109.9
 Auxiliary nurse 244 28.1 13.5 3.2 38.5 15.2 8.7 2.4 49.3
 Orderly 347 40.0 14.6 5.6 35.8 15.8 7.2 2.7 46.7
 Hygiene and sanitation staff 130 15.0 12.4 3.0 31.0 13.5 6.6 1.4 41.5
Moment
 Before patient contact 193 22.3 14.1 5.1 34.3 15.0 7.0 2.6 40.2 36.86 4 0.000
 Before aseptic procedure 17 2.0 21.5 5.2 32.5 20.1 7.1 5.2 32.5
 After patient contact 601 69.3 14.1 3.4 32.7 15.0 7.3 1.4 49.3
 After body fluid exposure 37 4.3 14.9 4.0 110.0 19.9 18.6 4.0 110.0
 Other 19 2.2 24.1 14.6 43.4 27.6 9.7 14.6 43.4
Products used
 Soap and water 71 8.2 22.2 8.5 44.1 23.5 10.0 8.2 46.7 54.18 2 0.000
 Hydroalcoholic solution wall 761 87.8 14.0 4.0 32.7 14.9 7.8 1.4 109.9
 Hydroalcoholic solution table (500 ml) 32 3.7 13.8 2.6 29.4 13.8 7.7 2.6 29.4
 Hydroalcoholic solution pocket size (45–50 ml) 3 0.3 27.8 27.3 36.4 30.5 5.1 27.2 36.4
Hygiene and sanitation of surfaces 102 100 541.5 42.9 1840.2 598.6 486.1 35.4 3411.6
Healthcare personnel
 Hygiene and sanitation staff 102 100 541.5 42.9 1840.2 598.6 486.1 35.4 3411.6 n/a   
Kind of cleaning
 Daily regular 58 56.9 333.6 41.5 1140.6 432.7 300.1 35.4 1222.2 32.45 3 0.000
 Daily additional precautions 13 12.7 335.9 51.4 702.0 391.2 181.6 51.4 702.0
 Terminal 3 2.9 738.6 35.8 3411.6 1395.3 1781.1 35.8 3411.6
 Terminal discharge/transfer 28 27.5 872.5 406.0 1941.0 953.1 404.5 406.0 1941.0
Materials used*
 Reusable cloths 6 5.9 635.9 450.7 1492.8 753.0 390.2 450.7 1492.8 n/a   
 Microfibre-reuseable 97 95.1 554.9 41.4 1862.1 611.7 493.6 35.4 3411.6
 Disinfectant disposable wipes 1 1.0 565.5 565.5 565.5 565.5 565.5 565.5
 Alcohol swabs 0 0
 Floor buffers 19 18.2 596.8 320.4 1531.7 715.2 350.1 320.4 1531.7
 Mops 1 1.0 58.6 58.6 58.6 58.6 58.6 58.6
 Toilette brush 1 1.0 151.9 151.0 151.9 151.9 151.9 151.9
Cleaning of small equipment 85 100 31.3 10.8 91.3 34.8 18.6 8.7 94.9
Healthcare personnel
 Nurse: bachelor trained 2 2.4 21.8 21.1 22.6 21.8 1.1 21.1 22.6 4.15 4 0.386
 Nurse: college trained 23 27.1 30.0 11.7 57.2 33.5 12.7 11.7 57.2
 Auxiliary nurse 38 44.7 28.0 8.7 94.9 35.3 23.7 8.7 94.9
 Orderly 12 14.1 36.1 14.0 85.7 39.4 17.7 14.0 85.7
 Hygiene and sanitation staff 10 11.8 36.0 16.6 42.6 33.1 8.6 16.6 42.6
Type of small equipment
 Multifunction vital sign monitor 29 34.1 39.7 11.5 94.9 43.3 20.8 11.5 94.9    
 Blood glucose monitor 18 21.2 20.7 8.7 51.7 21.6 10.0 8.7 51.7    
 Chariot and mop handle 10 11.8 32.2 16.6 42.6 30.5 9.0 16.6 42.6    
 Positive displacement pump 4 4.7 58.3 40.9 83.2 60.2 17.4 40.9 83.2    
 Pulse oximeter 4 4.7 37.0 21.1 65.0 40.0 18.7 21.1 65.0    
 Portable bladder scanner 3 3.5 21.9 20.8 23.0 21.9 1.1 20.8 23.0    
 Wheelchair 3 3.5 22.1 14.0 34.7 23.6 10.5 14.0 34.7    
 Commode chair 3 3.5 32.5 25.7 44.6 34.3 9.5 25.7 44.6    
 Walker 2 2.4 36.0 20.2 51.8 36.0 22.4 20.2 51.8    
 Scissors 3 3.5 15.4 11.7 29.2 18.7 9.2 11.7 29.2    
 Emesis bowl 3 3.5 37.5 29.9 42.0 36.4 6.1 29.9 42.0    
 Thermometer 2 2.4 80.0 65.0 94.9 80.0 21.2 65.0 94.9    
 Stretcher 1 1.2 85.7 85.7 85.7 85.7 85.7 85.7    
 Laundry bag support 1 1.2 44.7 44.7 44.7 44.7 44.7 44.7    
 Bassin 1 1.2 35.7 35.7 35.7 35.7 35.7 35.7    
 Scale 1 1.2 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3    
 Doppler 1 1.2 37.3 37.3 37.3 37.3 37.3 37.3    
 Table 1 1.2 33.3 33.3 33.3 33.3 33.3 33.3    
 Comb 1 1.2 22.4 22.4 22.4 22.4 22.4 22.4 22.4    
 Other 18 21.2 33.2 11.7 44.7 31.8 9.2 11.7 44.7    
Additional precautions 57 100 274.3 16.1 2669.0 385.0 511.7 15.5 3445.8    
Healthcare personnel
 Nurse: bachelor trained 5 8.8 169.1 32.3 205.4 138.9 77.4 32.3 205.4 23.09 3 0.000
 Nurse: college trained 0 0
 Auxiliary nurse 17 29.8 199.8 15.5 579.9 247.8 160.9 15.5 579.9
 Orderly 16 28.1 117.6 16.8 786.5 197.5 213.0 16.8 786.5
 Hygiene and sanitation staff 19 33.3 542.8 89.8 3445.8 730.3 748.7 89.8 3445.8
Kind of additional precaution
 Contact 42 73.7 252.9 16.7 3316.4 427.7 586.0 15.5 3445.8 4.96 3 0.000
 Contact-droplet 12 21.1 340.9 89.8 463.8 313.4 114.3 89.8 463.8
 Droplet 2 3.5 100.5 84.9 116.1 100.5 22.1 84.9 116.1
 Protection (inversed) 1 1.8 16.8 16.8 16.8 16.8 16.8 16.8
 Airborne
 Airborne-contact
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) 720 100 11.6 2.8 48.1 14.0 10.6 0.3 94.4
Healthcare personnel
 Nurse: bachelor trained 12 1.7 16.5 9.9 58.7 24.6 15.2 9.9 58.7 11.09 4 0.026
 Nurse: college trained 37 5.1 11.1 3.9 28.3 12.1 5.9 3.9 28.3
 Auxiliary nurse 125 17.4 11.8 1.9 40.3 13.9 9.9 1.6 76.0
 Orderly 243 33.8 11.5 4.5 39.0 13.2 7.9 3.2 65.5
 Hygiene and sanitation 303 42.1 11.7 2.0 64.5 14.3 12.6 0.3 94.4
PPE used
 Disposable gown 160 22.2 13.2 5.9 75.4 18.7 15.7 1.7 94.4 n/a   
 Reusable gown 597 82.9 11.6 2.6 49.0 13.7 10.6 0.3 94.4   
 Gloves—sterile (pair) 700 97.2 11.5 2.7 40.5 13.5 10.0 0.3 94.4   
 Gloves—nitrile 718 99.7 11.6 2.8 47.4 13.9 10.4 0.3 94.4   
 Gloves—vinyl 702 97.5 11.5 2.7 43.8 13.6 10.2 0.3 94.4   
 Procedural or surgical mask 720 100.0 11.6 2.8 48.1 14.0 10.6 0.3 94.4   
  1. *NB the number of materials surpasses the total number of actions as actions can use more than one material/product
  2. SD = Standard deviation
  3. X2 = Chi-square statistic
  4. df = degrees of freedom