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Table 1 Literature search and study characteristic

From: Effectiveness of chlorhexidine in preventing infections among patients undergoing cardiac surgeries: a meta-analysis and systematic review

Author, year Location Design Patients, n Method of application Intervention Frequency of treatment Age, year
CHX Control CHX Control CHX Control
Oral rinse
DeRiso [32] USA RCT 173 180 Oral rinse 0.12% CHX gluconate Placebo with comparable color, taste, and smell 2 times a day until ICU discharge 64.1 ± 0.86 63.5 ± 0.84
Houston [33] USA RCT 270 291 Oral rinse 0.12% CHX gluconate \ \ \ \
Segers [34] USA RCT 485 469 Oral rinse 0.12% CHX gluconate Placebo with comparable color, taste, and smell 4 times daily until the day after surgery 65.3 ± 10.4 66.4 ± 9.9
Jacomo [35] Brazil RCT 87 73 Oral rinse 0.12% CHX gluconate Placebo with comparable color, taste and smell 2 times daily until discharge or death 12.2(0–176) months 10.8(0–204) months
Nicolosi [37] Argentina Prospective cohort 150 150 Oral rinse 0.12% CHX gluconate Without CHX Every 12 h for 3 days 62.3 ± 12.4 63.1 ± 9.3
Skin antiseptic
Hannan [38] Ireland Prospective cohort 480 363 Pre-operative Skin antiseptic 2% CHX in 70% alcohol 70% alcohol \ 68 (61–74) 68 (61–75)
Madej [39] Germany Prospective cohort 1523 1462 Pre-operative Skin antiseptic 2% CHX combined with 70% IPA 55% IPA \ 67.9 ± 9.9 68.1 ± 9.9
Raja [40] UK Prospective cohort 738 738 Pre-operative Skin antiseptic 2% CHX in 70% alcohol 10% IPA \ \ \
Qintar [43] USA Retrospective cohort 1436 1356 Pre-operative skin antiseptic CHX in alcohol IPA \ 66 ± 14.14 65.69 ± 15.07
Disinfection of surgical-related appliances
Levy [36] Israel RCT 74 71 CHX-impregnated sponge CHX-impregnated sponge covered with a transparent polyurethane Transparent polyurethane \ 21 ± 37 31 ± 43
Kohler [41] Switzerland Prospective cohort 646 945 Whole-body shower 4% CHX digluconate Without CHX Once daily 64.4 ± 13.5 65.2 ± 13.0
Yeo [42] Korea Prospective cohort 96 96 Pre-operative disinfection of circuits and hubs 2% CHX + IPA Without CHX \ 59.4 ± 15.2 56.7 ± 13.4
Abboud [44] Brazil Retrospective cohort 82 64 Bathing with CHX-impregnated washcloths 2% CHX Without CHX Once-daily \ \
Thompson [45] USA Case–control 1995 643 Bathing with CHX-impregnated washcloths 2% CHX Without CHX Once-daily \ \
  1. CHX chlorhexidine, IPA isopropyl alcohol