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Table 2 Hospital AMS structures and activities, overall and by region

From: Assessing the impact of the Global Point Prevalence Survey of Antimicrobial Consumption and Resistance (Global-PPS) on hospital antimicrobial stewardship programmes: results of a worldwide survey

  n (%) n/n (%)
Africa (n = 38) Asia (n = 91) Europe (n = 61) Latin America (n = 31) Northern America (n = 24) Total (n = 248) Initiated as a result of PPS findings*
Local, evidence-based guidelines 12 (31.6) 69 (75.8) 44 (72.1) 24 (77.4) 23 (95.8) 175 (70.6) 67/143 (46.9)
Antimicrobial formulary 9 (23.7) 68 (74.7) 41 (67.2) 14 (45.2) 21 (87.5) 156 (62.9) 42/126 (33.3)
Education and communication 15 (39.5) 38 (41.8) 40 (65.6) 19 (61.3) 16 (66.7) 129 (52.0) 50/98 (51.0)
AMS committee** 12 (31.6) 46 (50.5) 27 (44.3) 16 (51.6) 23 (95.8) 127 (51.2) 34/102 (33.3)
AMS team 8 (21.1) 42 (46.2) 31( 50.8) 16 (51.6) 19 (79.2) 119 (48.0) 27/95 (28.4)
Specific AMS interventions†† 7 (18.4) 31 (34.1) 24 (39.3) 11 (35.5) 23 (95.8) 99 (39.9) 32/81 (39.5)
Information technology support 1 (2.6) 43 (47.3) 14 (23.0) 7 (22.6) 9 (37.5) 76 (30.6) 25/62 (40.3)
Other AMS activities 1 (2.6) 3 (3.3) 2 (3.3) 2 (6.5) 2 (8.3) 10 (4.0)  
No AMS activities 11 (28.9) 6 (6.6) 1 (1.6) 2 (6.5) 0 (0.0) 20 (8.1)  
  1. Results for Oceania (n = 3) are not reported separately
  2. *For the group of hospitals participating in the Global-PPS and with the respective AMS component implemented in the hospital
  3. **The organizational structure responsible for defining the antimicrobial stewardship strategy [12]
  4. The core operational team, responsible for the implementation of the antimicrobial stewardship activities in daily practice [12]
  5. ††E.g. audit and feedback, automatic stop orders, intravenous-to-oral switch policies etc.…