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Table 3 Antibiotic use one year prior to and after implementing selective reporting and change from prior to after implementation period in the Helios Clinics of Schwerin (S) and the reference clinic (R), estimated monthly use (RDD/100 BD), 95% CI

From: Staphylococcus aureus - selective reporting of antibiogram results and its impact on antibiotic use: Interventional study with a reference group on the effect of switching from non-selective to selective antibiotic reporting

Antibiotics Monthly use, year prior to*
implementing selective reporting
Monthly use, year after*
implementing selective reporting
Change of monthly use, after—prior *
S R Difference S-R** S R S# R# Difference S-R##
Selectively reported antibiotics
 Flucloxacillin iv + Cefazolin iv 0.88
(0.75; 1.01)
0.75
(0.65; 0.85)
0.13
(−0.03; 0.30)
1.48
(1.29; 1.68)
0.94
(0.77; 1.10)
0.27
(−0.11; 0.65)
−0.45
(−0.81; −0.08)
0.72
(0.20; 1.23)
    p = 0.111    p  = 0.158 p = 0.019 p = 0.007
 Cefalexin po 0.29 0.19 0.10 1.35 0.27 1.01 −0.14 1.15
  (0.20; 0.38) (0.05; 0.34) (−0.07; 0.27) (1.15; 1.55) (0.19; 0.35) (0.45; 1.56) (−0.46; 0.17) (0.53; 1.77)
    p = 0.239    p = 0.001 p = 0.356 p = 0.001
 Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 0.76
(0.54; 0.98)
2.21
(1.87; 2.56)
−1.45
(−1.87; −1.04)
1.12
(0.98; 1.27)
1.42
(1.19; 1.65)
0.14
(−0.40; 0.69)
−1.01
(−1.80; −0.22)
1.15
(0.22; 2.09)
    p < 0.001    p = 0.590 p = 0.015 p = 0.017
 Clindamycin iv/po 1.44
(1.26; 1.62)
1.27
(1.09; 1.45)
0.17
(−0.08; 0.43)
1.37
(1.13; 1.61)
1.05
(0.84; 1.25)
−0.20
(−0.91; 0.50)
−0.08
(−0.63; 0.46)
−0.12
(−0.98; 0.75)
    p = 0.177    p = 0.557 p = 0.751 p = 0.787
 Sum of above named selectively reported antibiotics 3.38
(2.99; 3.77)
4.42
(3.85; 5.00)
−1.05
(−1.75; −0.35)
5.34
(4.97; 5.70)
3.67
(3.46; 3.88)
1.22
(−0.06; 2.49)
−1.68
(−2.89; −0.48)
2.90
(1.21; 4.60)
    p = 0.005    p = 0.060 p = 0.008 p = 0.001
Combination therapy only
 Gentamicin iv 0.41
(0.32; 0.50)
0.28
(0.16; 0.40)
0.13
(−0.04; 0.30)
0.40
(0.26; 0.54)
0.58
(0.19; 0.98)
0.13
(−0.07; 0.34)
0.18
(−0.50; 0.86)
−0.05
(−0.73; 0.64)
    p = 0.119    p = 0.185 p = 0.587 p = 0.891
 Rifampin iv/po 0.57
(0.42; 0.73)
0.31
(0.23; 0.38)
0.27
(0.09; 0.44)
0.59
(0.37; 0.81)
0.50
(0.30; 0.70)
0.18
(−0.32; 0.68)
0.23
(−0.14; 0.59)
−0.05
(−0.65; 0.55)
    p = 0.004    p = 0.462 p = 0.206 p = 0.867
 Fosfomycin iv 0.03
(0.01; 0.06)
0.00
(−0.00; 0.01)
0.03
(0.01; 0.05)
0.04
(0.01; 0.07)
0.02
(−0.01; 0.05)
0.00
(−0.06; 0.06)
−0.02
(−0.06; 0.01)
0.03
(−0.04; 0.09)
    p = 0.017    p = 0.978 p = 0.126 p = 0.426
No longer reported antibiotics
 Ampicillin-sulbactam + Amoxicillin-clavunate iv/po 5.49
(4.97; 6.01)
4.28
(3.91; 4.65)
1.21
(0.57; 1.86)
5.77
(5.38; 6.15)
4.45
(4.00; 4.89)
1.34
(0.27; 2.40)
0.15
(−0.96; 1.25)
1.19
(−0.29; 2.67)
    p = 0.001    p = 0.016 p = 0.786 p = 0.113
 Piperacillin-tazobactam iv 3.91
(3.56; 4.25)
5.57
(5.08; 6.07)
−1.66
(−2.28; −1.04)
4.50
(4.09; 4.91)
5.86
(5.43; 6.30)
0.56
(−0.42; 1.55)
1.08
(−0.15; 2.30)
−0.51
(−2.04; 1.01)
    p < 0.001    p = 0.247 p = 0.082 p = 0.501
 Cefuroxime iv/po 6.16
(5.86; 6.46)
3.97
(3.68; 4.25)
2.20
(1.78; 2.61)
3.77
(3.55; 3.99)
2.21
(1.88; 2.55)
−0.53
(−1.18; 0.13)
−0.43
(−1.32; 0.45)
−0.09
(−1.16; 0.97)
    p < 0.001    p = 0.110 p = 0.321 p = 0.860
 Ceftriaxone iv 3.39
(3.09; 3.68)
2.96
(2.58; 3.35)
0.42
(−0.09; 0.93)
3.75
(3.38; 4.11)
3.10
(2.58; 3.62)
−0.22
(−1.11; 0.68)
0.70
(−0.73; 2.14)
−0.92
(−2.56; 0.72)
    p = 0.101    p = 0.618 p = 0.318 p = 0.262
 Imipenem-cilastatin iv + Meropenem iv 1.97
(1.74; 2.20)
2.43
(2.23; 2.62)
−0.46
(−0.76; −0.15)
2.35
(2.10; 2.60)
2.30
(2.01; 2.59)
0.29
(−0.48; 1.06)
−0.63
(−1.26; −0.01)
0.92
(−0.03; 1.88)
    p = 0.005    p = 0.440 p = 0.047 p = 0.059
 Ciprofloxacin iv/po 3.37
(3.01; 3.73)
4.09
(3.64; 4.55)
−0.72
(−1.40; −0.05)
3.56
(3.29; 3.83)
3.48
(3.02; 3.93)
−0.50
(−1.48; 0.48)
−0.71
(−1.69; 0.26)
0. 21
(−1.12; 1.55)
    p = 0.038    p = 0.298 p = 0.142 p = 0.749
 Vancomycin iv 0.97
(0.85; 1.08)
1.69
(1.48; 1.90)
−0.73
(−0.97; −0.48)
0.94
(0.80; 1.09)
1.58
(1.41; 1.76)
0.37
(0.06; 0.68)
−0.32
(−0.92; 0.27)
0.69
(0.05; 1.34)
    p < 0.001    p = 0.023 p = 0.266 p = 0.036
 Linezolid iv/po 0.37
(0.28; 0.46)
0.43
(0.33; 0.52)
−0.05
(−0.19; 0.09)
0.39
(0.32; 0.45)
0.37
(0.31; 0.43)
−0.17
(−0.36; 0.03)
0.01
(−0.29; 0.31)
−0.18
(−0.53; 0.17)
    p = 0.442    p = 0.097 p = 0.943 p = 0.315
 Doxycycline iv/po 0.50
(0.23; 0.77)
0.22
(0.10; 0.34)
0.28
(−0.01; 0.58)
0.67
(0.56; 0.79)
0.58
(0.44; 0.73)
−0.04
(−0.56; 0.48)
0.00
(−0.34; 0.34)
−0.04
(−0.64; 0.57)
    p = 0.061    p = 0.882 p = 1.000 p = 0.901
 Daptomycin iv 0.04
(0.01; 0.08)
0.01
(−0.00; 0.03)
0.03
(−0.01; 0.07)
0.10
(0.04; 0.16)
0.02
(−0.00; 0.04)
0.08
(−0.03; 0.20)
−0.04
(−0.10; 0.02)
0.13
(0.00; 0.26)
    p = 0.124    p = 0.148 p = 0.136 p = 0.047
 Sum of above named no longer reported antibiotics 42.36
(40.59; 44.14)
42.42
(40.17; 44.66)
−0.05
(−2.97; 2.87)
44.47
(42.87; 46.07)
40.69
(38.87; 42.51)
5.34
(−0.06; 10.74)
1.06
(−4.33; 6.44)
4.28
(−3.11; 11.67)
    p = 0.971    p = 0.052 p = 0.686 p = 0.249
Total antibiotic use iv/po 43.25
(41.45; 45.04)
43.16
(40.89; 45.44)
0.08
(−2.88; 3.04)
45.96
(44.37; 47.54)
41.62
(39.70; 43.55)
5.61
(0.24; 10.97)
0.61
(−5.04; 6.26)
5.00
(−2.56; 12.55)
    p = 0.955   p = 0.041 p = 0.824 p = 0.189  
Incidence of nosocomial infections with Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile associated cases / 100 total cases) 0.09
(0.06; 0.11)
0.30
(0.21; 0.38)
−0.21
(−0.30; −0.12)
0.04
(0.02; 0.06)
0.21
(0.16; 0.26)
−0.03
(−0.10; 0.03)
0.07
(−0.11; 0.24)
−0.10
(−0.28; 0.08)
    p < 0.001    p = 0.289 p = 0.451 p = 0.281
  1. RDD recommended daily dose, BD bed days
  2. *Estimation by interrupted time series analysis using linear regression
  3. **Estimated difference between Schwerin (interventional clinic) and reference clinic, prior implementing selective reporting
  4. #Estimated difference of monthly antibiotic use prior to and after implementing selective reporting (after—prior), p-value (null hypothesis: no change from prior to after intervention)
  5. ##Estimated difference (95%-CI) between intervention and reference clinic with respect to the difference of monthly use from prior to after intervention period, p-value (null hypothesis: the mean difference from prior to after intervention is the same in both clinics, p-values < 0.05 in bold)