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Table 1 Culture positivity rate of duodenoscopes after strict adherence to reprocessing standards

From: A narrative review on current duodenoscope reprocessing techniques and novel developments

First definition of contamination CPD (%) Second definition of contamination CPD (%) References
Any growth of high-concern organismsa or > 10 CFU of low-concern organismsb 18% NA NA [29]
Any growth of high-concern organismsc 4.9–5%  > 100 CFU of low/moderate concern organismsd 0.6–4.4% [21]
Any growth of high-concern organismse 0.4% Growth of any organism 7.7% [30]
Growth of any organism 1.1% NA NA [26]
Micro-organism of gastro-intestinal or oral origin regardless of quantityf 15% Growth of any organism ≥ 20 CFU/ml 22% [19]
Any growth of Gram-negative bacilliCDC 4.2% NA NA [25]
Growth ≥ 10 CFU/ml on the elevator mechanism or working channel 2.3% Growth of any organism on the elevator mechanism or working channel 16.1% [28]
Any growth of pathogenic organismsg 0.9% Growth of any organism 8.4% [23]
 ≥ 50 CFU/ml excluding skin contaminantsh 0.9% Growth of any organism 11%i [20]
Any growth of high-concern organismsCDC 2% Growth of any organismCDC 13.1% [22]
 > 100 CFU of total growth or any growth of high-concern organismsj 35.8% Growth of any organism above ≥ 25 CFU NA [27]
  1. Only studies published in the last decade have been included. Most studies report two definitions of contamination with accompanying contamination rates
  2. CPD culture positive duodenoscopes, percentage of duodenoscopes regarded contaminated according to the definition given; CFU/ml number of colony forming units per milliliter; NA not applicable; CDC sampling was performed using the centers for disease control and prevention interim sampling protocol released in 2015
  3. aYeast, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus species, Gram-negative enteric bacilli
  4. bcoagulase-negative Staphylococcus species, Micrococcus species, Gram-positive rods
  5. cGram-negative rods, Staphylococcus aureus, beta-hemolytic Streptococcus, Enterococcus species, Yeast
  6. dUndefined
  7. eEscherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus species, Enterobacter cloacae, Aeromonas species
  8. fYeast, Klebsiella species, Escherichia species, Enterobacter species, Enterococcus species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Moraxella species, Rothia species, Streptococcus species, and Neisseria species
  9. gEnteric Gram-negative bacilli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus species and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia
  10. hOrganisms not defined
  11. iNo number per endoscope provided, only a number of contaminated samples is available
  12. jStaphylococcus aureus, Enterobacterales, Pseudomonas species, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Acinetobacter species and Candida species