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Table 3 New methods for duodenoscope reprocessing

From: A narrative review on current duodenoscope reprocessing techniques and novel developments

Method Phase of development Advantages Disadvantages References
Single-use duodenoscope Implemented No need for reprocessing, non-toxic High costs, quality of duodenoscope [96,97,98]
Bioburden assays Implemented Quick and easy to use Lack of correlation with microbial culture [99,100,101,102,103]
Electrolyzed acidic water Endoscope tested No biofilm fixation, non-toxic Preparation on site needed [104,105,106,107,108,109,110]
Vaporized hydrogen peroxide plasma Endoscope tested No aeration needed, non-toxic Material incompatibility [73, 79, 111,112,113,114,115]
Cavitation Not tested Potentially effective against biofilm, non-toxic No disinfecting properties [116]
Methylene blue photodynamic therapy Model tested Effective against biofilm, limited toxicity Practical application lacking [117]
Plasma-activated gas Model tested Non-toxic Short-lived effect [118]