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Table 1 Swabbing sites in the ‘Patient experiment’ for all three runs

From: Silica nanoparticles with encapsulated DNA (SPED) to trace the spread of pathogens in healthcare

  Sampling sites before deployment of SPED at baseline Sampling sites immediately after toilet sequence Sampling sites after eight-hour interval
Patient skin
Subgluteal skin patient A X X  
Hands/palms patient A X   X
Subgluteal skin patient B X X  
Hands/palms patient B X   X
Restroom
Toilet seat after patient A X X  
Flush plate after patient A X X  
Tap handle after patient A X X  
Door handle after patient A X X  
Toilet seat after patient B X X  
Flush plate after patient B X X  
Tap handle after patient B X X  
Door handle after patient B X X  
Patient room
Bed control patient A X   X
Private phone patient A* X   X
Entertainment device patient A† X   X
Intravenous pump patient A X   X
Bed control patient B X   X
Private phone patient B* X   X
Entertainment device patient B† X   X
Intravenous pump patient B X   X
Nurse’s office
Nurse’s mobile phone X   X
Nurse’s office keyboard X   X
Doctor’s office
Doctor’s mobile phone X   X
Doctor’s office Keyboard X   X
  1. SPED silica nanoparticles with encapsulated DNA
  2. *The patients’ private mobile phone was swapped if available, otherwise the beside phone provided by hospital
  3. The most used device was assessed (among tablet, e-reader, laptop, hospital bedside TV): Run 1 A: tablet, B: bedside hospital TV; Run 2 A: e-reader, B: bedside hospital TV; Run 3 A: tablet, B: bedside hospital TV