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Table 1 Results of hygienic hand disinfection compliance observation (n = 1145 opportunities observed)

From: Compliance with hand disinfection in the surgical area of an orthopedic university clinic: results of an observational study

Parameter Compliant opportunities/observed opportunities (compliance in %) By WHO-5
Before patient contact Before aseptic task After body fluid exposure risk After patient contact After contact with patient surroundings
All opportunities (O.) 467/1145 (40.8%) 55/190 (28.9%) 92/277 (35.0%) 120/198 (60.6%) 135/221 (61.1%) 65/259 (25.1%)
O. by women 235/544 (43.2%) 22/76 (28.0%) 46/133 (34.6%) 64/97 (66.0%) 66/92 (71.7%) 37/146 (25.3%)
O. by men 232/601 (38.6%) 33/114 (28.9%) 46/144 (31.9%) 56/101 (55.4%) 69/129 (53.5%) 28/113 (24.8%)
O. by physicians 215/558 (38.5%) 20/89 (22.5%) 52/142 (36.6%) 60/108 (55.6%) 58/115 (50.4%) 25/104 (24.0%)
O. by nurses 252/587 (42.9%) 35/101 (35.7%) 40/135 (29.6%) 60/90 (66.7%) 77/106 (72.6%) 40/155 (25.8%)
O. by surgical staff 97/342 (28.4%) 10/65 (15.4%) 6/27 (22.2%) 39/81 (48.1%) 24/67 (35.8%) 18/102 (17.6%)
O. by anesthesia staff 370/803 (46.1%) 45/125 (36.0%) 86/250 (34.4%) 81/117 (69.2%) 111/154 (72.1%) 47/157 (29.9%)
O. in operation theatres for adult surgery 324/867 (37.4%) 47/145 (32.4%) 64/217 (29.5%) 84/150 (56.0%) 91/161 (56.5%) 38/194 (19.6%)
O. in operation theatre for pediatric surgery 143/278 (51.4%) 8/45 (17.8%) 28/60 (46.7%) 36/48 (75.0%) 44/60 (73.3%) 27/65 (41.5%)
O. in anesthesia induction room (incl. patient arrival) 218/509 (42.8%) 34/119 (28.6%) 58/134 (43.3%) 50/66 (75.8%) 54/94 (57.4%) 22/96 (22.9%)
O. inside operation theatre 179/463 (38.7%) 14/54 (25.9%) 26/117 (22.2%) 56/105 (53.3%) 57/71 (80.3%) 26/116 (22.4%)
O. in postoperative care 70/173 (40.5%) 7/17 (41.2%) 8/26 (30.8%) 14/27 (51.9%) 24/56 (42.9%) 17/47 (36.2%)
  1. 45 surgeons, 12 anesthesiologists, 23 surgical nurses and 10 anesthesiological nurses were working in the surgical area during the study period