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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of nosocomial infections in cancer patients

From: Establishment and validation of a nomogram to predict the in-hospital death risk of nosocomial infections in cancer patients

Variables Whole cohort (n = 1008) Training cohort (n = 708) Validation cohort (n = 300) Pb
Survival (n = 610) Death (n = 98) Pa
Sex (male) 563 (55.9) 336 (55.1) 63 (64.3) 0.088 164 (54.7) 0.621
Age (years old) 61 (54–68) 61 (54–69) 64 (54–71) 0.209 60 (53–67) 0.015*
 ≥ 61 533 (52.9) 332 (54.4) 60 (61.2)   141 (47.0)  
 < 61 475 (47.1) 278 (45.6) 38 (38.8)   159 (53.0)  
Tobacco use 430 (42.7) 261 (42.8) 45 (45.9) 0.561 124 (41.3) 0.580
ECOG-PS     < 0.001*   0.992
 0–2 951 (94.3) 591 (96.9) 77 (78.6)   283 (94.3)  
 3–4 57 (5.7) 19 (3.1) 21 (21.4)   17 (5.7)  
Underlying malignancy type       
 Head and neck cancer 34 (3.4) 16 (2.6) 8 (8.2) 0.012* 10 (3.3) 0.964
 Lung cancer 193 (19.1) 106 (17.4) 32 (32.7) < 0.001* 55 (18.3) 0.669
 Upper gastrointestinal cancer 285 (28.3) 180 (29.5) 23 (23.5) 0.220 82 (27.3) 0.666
 Hepatobiliary and pancreatic cancer 52 (5.2) 30 (4.9) 7 (7.1) 0.358 15 (5.0) 0.882
 Breast cancer 94 (9.3) 67 (11.0) 6 (6.1) 0.142 21 (7.0) 0.098
 Colon and rectal cancer 91 (9.0) 55 (9.0) 9 (9.2) 0.957 27 (9.0) 0.984
 Genitourinary cancer 48 (4.8) 33 (5.4) 3 (3.1) 0.463 12 (4.0) 0.460
 Gynecological cancer 211 (20.9) 123 (20.2) 10 (10.2) 0.019* 78 (26.0) 0.010*
Stage of cancer     0.045*   0.729
 Stage I–II 405 (40.2) 252 (41.3) 30 (30.6)   123 (41.0)  
 Stage III–IV 603 (59.8) 358 (58.7) 68 (69.4)   177 (59.0)  
Comorbidities       
 COPD 48 (4.8) 23 (3.8) 10 (10.2) 0.011* 15 (5.0) 0.817
 Liver disease 53 (5.3) 29 (4.8) 13 (13.3) 0.001* 11 (3.7) 0.141
 Diabetes mellitus 99 (9.8) 50 (8.2) 11 (11.2) 0.321 38 (12.7) 0.048*
 Renal disease 42 (4.2) 22 (3.6) 11 (11.2) 0.002* 9 (3.0) 0.228
Source of infection       
 Respiratory tract 376 (37.3) 227 (37.2) 46 (46.9) 0.066 103 (34.3) 0.205
 Gastrointestinal 36 (3.6) 16 (2.6) 7 (7.1) 0.019* 13 (4.3) 0.396
 Urinary tract 250 (24.8) 159 (26.1) 13 (13.3) 0.006* 78 (26.0) 0.566
 Skin and soft tissue 98 (9.7) 69 (11.3) 2 (2.0) 0.005* 27 (9.0) 0.614
 Thoracic cavity 59 (5.9) 35 (5.7) 2 (2.0) 0.127 22 (7.3) 0.193
 Abdominal cavity 59 (5.9) 36 (5.9) 5 (5.1) 0.753 18 (6.0) 0.897
 BSI 130 (12.9) 68 (11.1) 23 (23.5) 0.001* 39 (13.0) 0.949
Existence of fever 403 (40.0) 229 (37.5) 54 (55.1) 0.001* 120 (40.0) 0.993
Previous surgery (within 1 month)     < 0.001*   0.299
 None 668 (66.3) 387 (63.4) 87 (88.8)   194 (64.7)  
 Curative surgery 314 (31.2) 205 (33.6) 8 (8.2)   101 (33.7)  
 Palliative surgery 26 (2.6) 18 (3.0) 3 (3.1)   5 (1.7)  
Previous chemotherapy (within 1 month)     0.245   0.950
 None 625 (62.0) 371 (60.8) 70 (71.4)   184 (61.3)  
 Neoadjuvant 12 (1.2) 8 (1.3) 1 (1.0)   3 (1.0)  
 Adjuvant 198 (19.6) 126 (20.7) 14 (14.3)   58 (19.3)  
 1st line 114 (11.3) 71 (11.6) 6 (6.1)   37 (12.3)  
 2nd line 42 (4.2) 23 (3.8) 5 (5.1)   14 (4.7)  
 ≥ 3rd line 17 (1.7) 11 (1.8) 2 (2.0)   4 (1.3)  
Previous radiotherapy (within 1 month) 142 (14.1) 89 (14.6) 9 (9.2) 0.150 44 (14.7) 0.731
Empirical antibiotic treatment       
 β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor 161 (16.0) 92 (15.1) 11 (11.2) 0.315 58 (19.3) 0.058
 Third-generation cephalosporins 133 (13.2) 80 (13.1) 10 (10.2) 0.422 43 (14.3) 0.487
 Carbapenems 24 (2.4) 12 (2.0) 1 (1.0) 0.808 11 (3.7) 0.081
 Fluoroquinolones 117 (11.6) 71 (11.6) 9 (9.2) 0.476 37 (12.3) 0.639
 Aminoglycosides 8 (0.8) 3 (0.5) 0 (0.0) 1.000 5 (1.7) 0.100
 Combination therapy 405 (40.2) 250 (41.0) 55 (56.1) 0.005* 100 (33.3) 0.004*
Length of antimicrobial therapy (day) 7 (4–11) 7 (4–11) 6 (3–10) 0.016* 7 (4–10) 0.546
 ≥ 7 563 (56.4) 359 (50.7) 45 (6.4)   165 (55.0)  
 < 7 439 (43.6) 251 (35.5) 53 (7.5)   135 (45.0)  
Presence of indwelling catheters 564 (56.0) 350 (57.4) 45 (45.9) 0.034* 169 (56.3) 0.874
ICU admission 99 (9.8) 68 (11.1) 13 (13.3) 0.541 18 (6.0) 0.008*
Mechanical ventilation 66 (6.5) 35 (5.7) 14 (14.3) 0.002* 17 (5.7) 0.462
Septic shock 124 (12.3) 58 (9.5) 37 (37.8) < 0.001* 29 (9.7) 0.097
Laboratory examination results       
 Hemoglobin (g/L; normal range 115–150) 108.2 ± 20.1 108.9 ± 19.5 103.4 ± 22.3 0.010 108.3 ± 20.56 0.921
 < 110 536 (53.2) 325 (53.3) 61 (62.2) 0.098 150 (50.0) 0.189
 Platelet count (× 109/L; normal range 125–350) 211.1 ± 113.4 217.8 ± 117.8 172.9 ± 113.7 < 0.001 210.1 ± 101.6 0.852
 < 100.0 131 (13.0) 67 (11.0) 25 (25.5) < 0.001* 39 (13.0) 0.998
 White-cell count (× 109/L; normal range 4.0–10.0) 8.1 ± 5.1 8.2 ± 5.1 9.1 ± 6.8 0.257 7.6 ± 4.2 0.021*
 > 10.0 265 (26.3) 168 (27.5) 34 (34.7) 0.146 63 (21.0) 0.013*
 < 4.0 161 (16.0) 93 (15.2) 20 (20.4) 0.195 48 (16.0) 0.987
 Neutrophils count (× 109/L) 6.6 ± 4.8 6.6 ± 4.9 7.7 ± 6.4 0.107 6.1 ± 4.0 0.026*
 Lymphocytes count (× 109/L; normal range 1.1–3.2) 1.0 ± 0.6 1.0 ± 0.6 0.8 ± 0.6 0.009 1.0 ± 0.6 0.800
 < 1.0 583 (57.8) 352 (57.7) 71 (72.4) 0.006* 160 (53.3) 0.059
 Albumin (g/L; normal range 40–55) 34.2 ± 6.1 34.6 ± 5.8 30.9 ± 6.1 < 0.001 34.5 ± 6.2 0.303
 < 30.0 263 (26.1) 140 (23.0) 49 (50.0) < 0.001* 74 (24.7) 0.503
  1. ECOG-PS, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; BSI, bloodstream infection; ICU, intensive care unit
  2. aP value for univariate analysis of the training cohort
  3. bP value for clinical characteristics analysis between the training cohort and validation cohort
  4. *Indicates statistical significance